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Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus suis isolates from pigs with or without streptococcal disease in England between 2009 and 2014.

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Hernandez-Garcia, Juan  ORCID logo
Holmes, Mark A 
Mather, Alison E 


Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus suis, a global zoonotic pathogen of pigs, has been mostly studied only in diseased animals using surveys that have not evaluated changes over time. We compared patterns of resistance between S. suis isolates from clinical cases of disease (CC) and non-clinical case (NCC) pigs in England, collected over two discrete periods, 2009-2011 and 2013-2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 17 antimicrobials (nine classes) were determined on 405 S. suis isolates categorised by sampling period and disease association to assess changes in resistance over time and association with disease. First, isolates were characterized as resistant or susceptible using published clinical breakpoints. Second, epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFF) were derived from MIC values, and isolates classified as wild type (WT) below the ECOFF and non-wild type (NWT) above the ECOFF. Finally, isolate subsets were analysed for shifts in MIC distribution. NCC isolates were more resistant than CC isolates to cephalosporins, penams, pleuromutilins, potentiated sulphonamides and tetracyclines in both study periods. Resistance levels among CC isolates increased in 2013-2014 relative to 2009-2011 for antimicrobials including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, pleuromutilins, potentiated sulphonamides and tetracyclines. The prevalence of isolates categorised as NWT for five or more classes of antimicrobials was greater among NCC than CC isolates for both time periods, and increased with time. This study used standardised methods to identify significant shifts in antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of S. suis isolated from pigs in England, not only over time but also between isolates from known clinical cases or disease-free pigs.



Antimicrobial resistance, Streptococcus suis, Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, England, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Streptococcal Infections, Streptococcus suis, Swine, Swine Diseases

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Vet Microbiol

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Elsevier BV
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/G019274/1)
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/L003902/1)
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/M014088/1)
Royal Society (DH140195)
Wellcome Trust (109385/Z/15/Z)
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/J020664/1)
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/N001591/1)
This study (BB/L003902/1) was funded by the RCUK-MOST China UK Programme on Global Priorities. JHG was funded by the Zoetis/ Cambridge Senior Training Scholarship in Pig Health Management. AEM was funded by a Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council grant BB/M014088/1. This work was supported by a Longer and Larger (LoLa) grant from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (grant numbers BB/G020744/1, BB/G019177/1, BB/ G019274/1 and BB/G018553/1), the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and Zoetis awarded to the Bacterial Respiratory Diseases of Pigs-1 Technology (BRaDP1T) consortium.