Repository logo

Non-Invasive and Minimally-Invasive Cerebral Autoregulation Assessment: A Narrative Review of Techniques and Implications for Clinical Research.

Published version



Change log


Sainbhi, Amanjyot Singh 
Gomez, Alwyn 
Froese, Logan 
Slack, Trevor 
Batson, Carleen 


The process of cerebral vessels regulating constant cerebral blood flow over a wide range of systemic arterial pressures is termed cerebral autoregulation (CA). Static and dynamic autoregulation are two types of CA measurement techniques, with the main difference between these measures relating to the time scale used. Static autoregulation looks at the long-term change in blood pressures, while dynamic autoregulation looks at the immediate change. Techniques that provide regularly updating measures are referred to as continuous, whereas intermittent techniques take a single at point in time. However, a technique being continuous or intermittent is not implied by if the technique measures autoregulation statically or dynamically. This narrative review outlines technical aspects of non-invasive and minimally-invasive modalities along with providing details on the non-invasive and minimally-invasive measurement techniques used for CA assessment. These non-invasive techniques include neuroimaging methods, transcranial Doppler, and near-infrared spectroscopy while the minimally-invasive techniques include positron emission tomography along with magnetic resonance imaging and radiography methods. Further, the advantages and limitations are discussed along with how these methods are used to assess CA. At the end, the clinical considerations regarding these various techniques are highlighted.



Transcranial Doppler, cerebrovascular autoregulation, computed tomography, dynamic autoregulation, magnetic resonance imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, static autoregulation

Journal Title

Front Neurol

Conference Name

Journal ISSN


Volume Title



Frontiers Media SA