Multi-length scale bioprinting towards simulating microenvironmental cues.
It is envisaged that the creation of cellular environments at multiple length scales, that recapitulate in vivo bioactive and structural roles, may hold the key to creating functional, complex tissues in the laboratory. This review considers recent advances in biofabrication and bioprinting techniques across different length scales. Particular focus is placed on 3D printing of hydrogels and fabrication of biomaterial fibres that could extend the feature resolution and material functionality of soft tissue constructs. The outlook from this review discusses how one might create and simulate microenvironmental cues in vitro. A fabrication platform that integrates the competencies of different biofabrication technologies is proposed. Such a multi-process, multiscale fabrication strategy may ultimately translate engineering capability into an accessible life sciences toolkit, fulfilling its potential to deliver in vitro disease models and engineered tissue implants.
European Research Council (758865)
Medical Research Council (MC_PC_12009)