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Ethnic inequalities in age-related patterns of multiple long-term conditions in England: Analysis of primary care and nationally representative survey data.

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Stafford, Mai 
Saunders, Catherine L 


Little is known about the patterning of multiple long-term conditions (MLTCs) by age, ethnicity and across conceptualisations of MLTCs (e.g. MLTCs with/without mental health conditions [MHCs]). We examined ethnic inequalities in age-related patterns of MLTCs, and combinations of physical and MHCs using the English GP Patient Survey and Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We described the association between MLTCs and age using multilevel regression models adjusting for sex and area-level deprivation with patients nested within GP practices. Similar analyses were repeated for MLTCs that include MHCs. We observed ethnic inequalities from middle-age onwards such as older Pakistani, Indian, Black Caribbean and Other ethnic people had increased risk of MLTCs compared to white British people, even after adjusting for area-level deprivation. Compared to white British people, Gypsy and Irish Travellers had higher levels of MLTCs across the age groups, and Chinese people had lower levels. Pakistani and Bangladeshi people aged 50-74 years were more likely than white people to report MLTCs that included MHCs. We find clear evidence of ethnic inequalities in MLTCs. The lower prevalence of MLTCs that include MHCs among some minoritised ethnic groups may be an underestimation due to underdiagnosis and/or inadequate primary care and requires further scrutiny.


Publication status: Published


age-related patterns, ethnicity, general practice, health inequalities, multiple long-term conditions

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Sociol Health Illn

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Health Foundation (AIMS 1874695)