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Both COVID-19 infection and vaccination induce high-affinity cross-clade responses to SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Published version
Peer-reviewed

Type

Article

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Authors

Emmenegger, Marc 
Fiedler, Sebastian 
Brugger, Silvio D 
Devenish, Sean RA 
Morgunov, Alexey S 

Abstract

The B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant has rapidly supplanted most other SARS-CoV-2 variants. Using microfluidics-based antibody affinity profiling (MAAP), we have characterized affinity and IgG concentration in the plasma of 39 individuals with multiple trajectories of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or vaccination. Antibody affinity was similar against the wild-type, delta, and omicron variants (K A ranges: 122 ± 155, 159 ± 148, 211 ± 307 μM-1, respectively), indicating a surprisingly broad and mature cross-clade immune response. Postinfectious and vaccinated subjects showed different IgG profiles, with IgG3 (p-value = 0.002) against spike being more prominent in the former group. Lastly, we found that the ELISA titers correlated linearly with measured concentrations (R = 0.72) but not with affinity (R = 0.29). These findings suggest that the wild-type and delta spike induce a polyclonal immune response capable of binding the omicron spike with similar affinity. Changes in titers were primarily driven by antibody concentration, suggesting that B-cell expansion, rather than affinity maturation, dominated the response after infection or vaccination.

Description

Keywords

Disease, Immune response, Virology

Journal Title

iScience

Conference Name

Journal ISSN

2589-0042
2589-0042

Volume Title

25

Publisher

Elsevier BV