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Vibration-Induced Heating of Energetic Materials: A Review

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jats:titleAbstract</jats:title>jats:pThe transport of energetic materials—whether by truck over rough terrain, or attached to the undercarriage of a high-performance jet aircraft—carries a certain level of inherent risk as the repeatedly applied stresses from vibration may lead to heating, mechanical degradation, and potentially even the triggering of an ignition event. Increasing knowledge of the underlying physics which control ignition is allowing us to better understand, and thus reduce, the risk of a catastrophic event occurring. The Apollo and Space Shuttle programmes provided motivation for research into the topic in the 1960s and 1970s, and some recent studies have focussed on the grain-scale physics of ignition. However, much of the useful insight has arisen from work with other primary applications in mind. Therefore, this review aims to bring together literature from several fields, with the intention of better understanding vibration-induced heating (VIH) phenomena in energetic materials. Sensitivity, VIH in viscoelastic polymers and inert composites, and a technique known as vibrothermography which uses VIH to detect cracks, are all considered where relevant read-across can be found. Often being viscoelastic materials and composites with complex rheology, energetic materials subjected to vibrational loading tend to warm up, with potential for even greater temperature rises due to anisotropy-driven localised heating mechanisms. Binders soften as temperature rises, and the chance of damage increases, which may lead to runaway heating and thermal failure (if mechanical failure does not occur first).</jats:p>



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Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials

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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
QinetiQ Plc