Clinical applicability of the Polygenic Risk Score for breast cancer risk prediction in familial cases.
BACKGROUND: Common low-risk variants are presently not used to guide clinical management of familial breast cancer (BC). We explored the additive impact of a 313-variant-based Polygenic Risk Score (PRS313) relative to standard gene testing in non-BRCA1/2 Dutch BC families. METHODS: We included 3918 BC cases from 3492 Dutch non-BRCA1/2 BC families and 3474 Dutch population controls. The association of the standardised PRS313 with BC was estimated using a logistic regression model, adjusted for pedigree-based family history. Family history of the controls was imputed for this analysis. SEs were corrected to account for relatedness of individuals. Using the BOADICEA (Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm) V.5 model, lifetime risks were retrospectively calculated with and without individual PRS313. For 2586 cases and 2584 controls, the carrier status of pathogenic variants (PVs) in ATM, CHEK2 and PALB2 was known. RESULTS: The family history-adjusted PRS313 was significantly associated with BC (per SD OR=1.97, 95% CI 1.84 to 2.11). Including the PRS313 in BOADICEA family-based risk prediction would have changed screening recommendations in up to 27%, 36% and 34% of cases according to BC screening guidelines from the USA, UK and the Netherlands (National Comprehensive Cancer Network, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, and Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation), respectively. For the population controls, without information on family history, this was up to 39%, 44% and 58%, respectively. Among carriers of PVs in known moderate BC susceptibility genes, the PRS313 had the largest impact for CHEK2 and ATM. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the application of the PRS313 in risk prediction for genetically uninformative BC families and families with a PV in moderate BC risk genes.
Peer reviewed: True
Acknowledgements: We would like to thank Mary Velthuizen (University Medical Center Utrecht), J Margriet Collée (Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam), Wendy Prager-van den Smissen (Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam), Daoud Ait Moha (The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital), Jan C Oosterwijk (University Medical Center Groningen), Janet R Vos (Radboud University Medical Center), Jeroen FJ Laros (Leiden University Medical Center) and Adri JM Krol (Leiden University Medical Center) for collecting and converting the pedigree files of the included families.