Monitoring Neurochemistry in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients Using Microdialysis Integrated with Biosensors: A Review
In a traumatically injured brain, the cerebral microdialysis technique allows continuous sampling of fluid from the brain’s extracellular space. The retrieved brain fluid contains useful metabolites that indicate the brain’s energy state. Assessment of these metabolites along with other parameters, such as intracranial pressure, brain tissue oxygenation, and cerebral perfusion pressure, may help inform clinical decision making, guide medical treatments, and aid in the prognostication of patient outcomes. Currently, brain metabolites are assayed on bedside analysers and results can only be achieved hourly. This is a major drawback because critical information within each hour is lost. To address this, recent advances have focussed on developing biosensing techniques for integration with microdialysis to achieve continuous online monitoring. In this review, we discuss progress in this field, focusing on various types of sensing devices and their ability to quantify specific cerebral metabolites at clinically relevant concentrations. Important points that require further investigation are highlighted, and comments on future perspectives are provided.