The moderating role of eating behaviour traits in the association between exposure to hot food takeaway outlets and body fatness.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated a relation between takeaway outlet exposure and health outcomes. Individual characteristics, such as eating behaviour traits, could make some people more susceptible to the influence of the food environment. Few studies have investigated this topic. We aimed to investigate the moderating role of eating behaviour traits (cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating) in the association between neighbourhood exposure to hot food takeaway outlets (hereafter referred to as takeaway outlets), and takeaway food consumption and adiposity. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from a cohort in Cambridgeshire, UK (The Fenland study). Takeaway outlet exposure was derived using participants' residential address and data from local authorities and divided into quarters. The Three Factor Eating questionnaire (TFEQ-R18) was used to measure eating behaviour traits. Primary outcomes were consumption of takeaway-like foods (derived from food frequency questionnaire), and body fat percentage (measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). RESULTS: Mean age of participants (n = 4791) was 51.0 (SD = 7.2) and 53.9% were female. Higher exposure to takeaway outlets in the neighbourhood and higher eating behaviour trait scores were independently associated with greater takeaway consumption and body fat percentage. Uncontrolled eating did not moderate the associations between takeaway outlet exposure and takeaway consumption or body fat percentage. The association between takeaway outlet exposure and takeaway consumption was slightly stronger in those with higher cognitive restraint scores, and the association between takeaway outlet exposure and body fat percentage was slightly stronger in those with lower emotional eating scores. CONCLUSION: Eating behaviour traits and exposure to takeaway outlets were associated with greater takeaway consumption and body fat, but evidence that individuals with certain traits are more susceptible to takeaway outlets was weak. The findings indicate that interventions at both the individual and environmental levels are needed to comprehensively address unhealthy diets. TRIAL REGISTRY: ISRCTN72077169.
Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUH) (146281)
Department of Health (via National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)) (NIHR202397)
National Institute for Health and Care Research (IS-BRC-1215-20014)