Criteria for the design of tissue-mimicking phantoms for the standardization of biophotonic instrumentation.


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Authors
Pifferi, Antonio 
Pfefer, T Joshua 
Abstract

A lack of accepted standards and standardized phantoms suitable for the technical validation of biophotonic instrumentation hinders the reliability and reproducibility of its experimental outputs. In this Perspective, we discuss general criteria for the design of tissue-mimicking biophotonic phantoms, and use these criteria and state-of-the-art developments to critically review the literature on phantom materials and on the fabrication of phantoms. By focusing on representative examples of standardization in diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy, fluorescence-guided surgery and photoacoustic imaging, we identify unmet needs in the development of phantoms and a set of criteria (leveraging characterization, collaboration, communication and commitment) for the standardization of biophotonic instrumentation.

Description
Keywords
Reference Standards, Reproducibility of Results, Research Design, Surgery, Computer-Assisted
Journal Title
Nat Biomed Eng
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
2157-846X
2157-846X
Volume Title
Publisher
Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Sponsorship
Cancer Research UK (C14303/A17197)
Cancer Research UK (C14303/A17197)
National Physical Laboratory (NPL) (unknown)
National Physical Laboratory (NPL) (unknown)
National Physical Laboratory (NPL) (unknown)