Repository logo

AI Extenders

Published version

Change log


Hernández-Orallo, José 
Vold, Karina Vergobbi  ORCID logo


Humans and AI systems are usually portrayed as separate sys- tems that we need to align in values and goals. However, there is a great deal of AI technology found in non-autonomous systems that are used as cognitive tools by humans. Under the extended mind thesis, the functional contributions of these tools become as essential to our cognition as our brains. But AI can take cognitive extension towards totally new capabil- ities, posing new philosophical, ethical and technical chal- lenges. To analyse these challenges better, we define and place AI extenders in a continuum between fully-externalized systems, loosely coupled with humans, and fully-internalized processes, with operations ultimately performed by the brain, making the tool redundant. We dissect the landscape of cog- nitive capabilities that can foreseeably be extended by AI and examine their ethical implications. We suggest that cognitive extenders using AI be treated as distinct from other cognitive enhancers by all relevant stakeholders, including developers, policy makers, and human users.



46 Information and Computing Sciences, 4608 Human-Centred Computing, Minority Health, 1 Underpinning research, 1.1 Normal biological development and functioning

Journal Title

Proceedings of the 2019 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society

Conference Name

AIES '19: AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society

Journal ISSN

Volume Title


Leverhulme Trust (RC-2015-067)
Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence, Leverhulme Trust, under Grant RC-2015-067