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Association between recent exposure to continuous glucose monitoring-recorded hypoglycaemia and counterregulatory and symptom responses to subsequent controlled hypoglycaemia in people with type 1 diabetes.

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AIM: Experimental hypoglycaemia blunts the counterregulatory hormone and symptom responses to a subsequent episode of hypoglycaemia. In this study, we aimed to assess the associations between antecedent exposure and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-recorded hypoglycaemia during a 1-week period and the counterregulatory responses to subsequent experimental hypoglycaemia in people with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two people with type 1 diabetes (20 females, mean ± SD glycated haemoglobin 7.8% ± 1.0%, diabetes duration median (interquartile range) 22.0 (10.5-34.9) years, 29 CGM users, and 19 with impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia) wore an open intermittently scanned CGM for 1 week to detect hypoglycaemic exposure before a standardized hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemic [2.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L (50.2 ± 2.3 mg/dl)] glucose clamp. Symptom responses and counterregulatory hormones were measured during the clamp. The study is part of the HypoRESOLVE project. RESULTS: CGM-recorded hypoglycaemia in the week before the clamp was negatively associated with adrenaline response [β -0.09, 95% CI (-0.16, -0.02) nmol/L, p = .014], after adjusting for CGM use, awareness of hypoglycaemia, glycated haemoglobin and total daily insulin dose. This was driven by level 2 hypoglycaemia [<3.0 mmol/L (54 mg/dl)] [β -0.21, 95% CI (-0.41, -0.01) nmol/L, p = .034]. CGM-recorded hypoglycaemia was negatively associated with total, autonomic, and neuroglycopenic symptom responses, but these associations were lost after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Recent exposure to CGM-detected hypoglycaemia was independently associated with an attenuated adrenaline response to experimental hypoglycaemia in people with type 1 diabetes.



continuous glucose monitoring, counterregulation, counterregulatory hormone and symptom responses, diabetes, hyperinsulinaemic‐hypoglycaemic clamp, hypoglycaemia, hypoglycaemia awareness, type 1 diabetes

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Diabetes Obes Metab

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The original study has received funding from the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 777460. The JU receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and EFPIA and type 1 diabetes, Exchange, JDRF, IDF, and HCT. The University of Cambridge has received salary support for ME through the National Health Service in the East of England through the Clinical Academic Reserve.