Early Events in the Endoplasmic Reticulum Unfolded Protein Response.
The physiological consequences of the unfolded protein response (UPR) are mediated by changes in gene expression. Underlying them are rapid processes involving preexisting components. We review recent insights gained into the regulation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Hsp70 chaperone BiP, whose incorporation into inactive oligomers and reversible AMPylation and de-AMPylation present a first line of response to fluctuating levels of unfolded proteins. BiP activity is tied to the regulation of the UPR transducers by a recently discovered cycle of ER-localized, J protein-mediated formation of a repressive IRE1-BiP complex, whose working we contrast to an alternative model for UPR regulation that relies on direct recognition of unfolded proteins. We conclude with a discussion of mechanisms that repress messenger RNA (mRNA) translation to limit the flux of newly synthesized proteins into the ER, a rapid adaptation that does not rely on new macromolecule biosynthesis.
Online Publication Date
Wellcome Trust (100140/Z/12/Z)