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dc.contributor.authorLim, Eleanor Yen
dc.contributor.authorJackson, Sarahen
dc.contributor.authorWills, Marken
dc.date.accessioned2020-04-17T23:30:55Z
dc.date.available2020-04-17T23:30:55Z
dc.date.issued2020-01en
dc.identifier.issn2235-2988
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/304500
dc.description.abstractWhile CD8+ T cells specific for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have been extensively studied in both healthy HCMV seropositive carriers and patients undergoing immunosuppression, studies on the CD4+ T cell response to HCMV had lagged behind. However, over the last few years there has been a significant advance in our understanding of the importance and contribution that CMV-specific CD4+ T cells make, not only to anti-viral immunity but also in the potential maintenance of latently infected cells. During primary infection with HCMV in adults, CD4+ T cells are important for the resolution of symptomatic disease, while persistent shedding of HCMV into urine and saliva is associated with a lack of HCMV specific CD4+ T cell response in young children. In immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients, a delayed appearance of HCMV-specific CD4+ T cells is associated with prolonged viremia and more severe clinical disease, while in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, it has been suggested that HCMV-specific CD4+ T cells are required for HCMV-specific CD8+ T cells to exert their anti-viral effects. In addition, adoptive T-cell immunotherapy in transplant patients has shown that the presence of HCMV-specific CD4+ T cells is required for the maintenance of HCMV-specific CD8+ T cells. HCMV is a paradigm for immune evasion. The presence of viral genes that down-regulate MHC class II molecules and the expression of viral IL-10 both limit antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells, underlining the important role that this T cell subset has in antiviral immunity. This review will discuss the antigen specificity, effector function, phenotype and direct anti-viral properties of HCMV specific CD4+ T cells, as well as reviewing our understanding of the importance of this T cell subset in primary infection and long-term carriage in healthy individuals. In addition, their role and importance in congenital HCMV infection and during immunosuppression in both solid organ and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered.
dc.format.mediumElectronic-eCollectionen
dc.languageengen
dc.publisherFrontiers Media S.A.
dc.rightsAll rights reserved
dc.rights.uri
dc.subjectCD4-Positive T-Lymphocytesen
dc.subjectCD8-Positive T-Lymphocytesen
dc.subjectHumansen
dc.subjectCytomegalovirusen
dc.subjectCytomegalovirus Infectionsen
dc.subjectImmunocompromised Hosten
dc.subjectAdulten
dc.subjectChilden
dc.subjectChild, Preschoolen
dc.titleThe CD4+ T Cell Response to Human Cytomegalovirus in Healthy and Immunocompromised People.en
dc.typeArticle
prism.publicationDate2020en
prism.publicationNameFrontiers in cellular and infection microbiologyen
prism.startingPage202
prism.volume10en
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.51579
dcterms.dateAccepted2020-04-16en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.3389/fcimb.2020.00202en
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2020-01en
dc.contributor.orcidLim, Eleanor Y [0000-0002-4776-4820]
dc.contributor.orcidJackson, Sarah [0000-0002-4230-9220]
dc.contributor.orcidWills, Mark [0000-0001-8548-5729]
dc.identifier.eissn2235-2988
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MR/K021087/1)
pubs.funder-project-idWellcome Trust (via University College London (UCL)) (Ref 17/0008 539724)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MR/S00081X/1)
cam.orpheus.counter7*
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2023-04-17


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