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dc.contributor.authorCloutier, Ren
dc.contributor.authorCharbonneau, Den
dc.contributor.authorStassun, KGen
dc.contributor.authorMurgas, Fen
dc.contributor.authorMortier, Anneliesen
dc.contributor.authorMassey, Ren
dc.contributor.authorLissauer, JJen
dc.contributor.authorLatham, DWen
dc.contributor.authorIrwin, Jen
dc.contributor.authorHaywood, RDen
dc.contributor.authorGuerra, Pen
dc.contributor.authorGirardin, Een
dc.contributor.authorGiacalone, SAen
dc.contributor.authorBosch-Cabot, Pen
dc.contributor.authorBieryla, Aen
dc.contributor.authorWinn, Jen
dc.contributor.authorWatson, CAen
dc.contributor.authorVanderspek, Ren
dc.contributor.authorUdry, Sen
dc.contributor.authorTamura, Men
dc.contributor.authorSozzetti, Aen
dc.contributor.authorShporer, Aen
dc.contributor.authorSégransan, Den
dc.contributor.authorSeager, Sen
dc.contributor.authorSavel, ABen
dc.contributor.authorSasselov, Den
dc.contributor.authorRose, Men
dc.contributor.authorRicker, Gen
dc.contributor.authorRice, Ken
dc.contributor.authorQuintana, EVen
dc.contributor.authorQuinn, SNen
dc.contributor.authorPiotto, Gen
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, Den
dc.contributor.authorPepe, Fen
dc.contributor.authorPedani, Men
dc.contributor.authorParviainen, Hen
dc.contributor.authorPalle, Een
dc.contributor.authorNarita, Nen
dc.contributor.authorMolinari, Een
dc.contributor.authorMicela, Gen
dc.contributor.authorMcDermott, Sen
dc.contributor.authorMayor, Men
dc.contributor.authorMatson, RAen
dc.contributor.authorMartinez Fiorenzano, AFen
dc.contributor.authorLovis, Cen
dc.contributor.authorLópez-Morales, Men
dc.contributor.authorKusakabe, Nen
dc.contributor.authorJensen, ELNen
dc.contributor.authorJenkins, JMen
dc.contributor.authorHuang, CXen
dc.contributor.authorHowell, SBen
dc.contributor.authorHarutyunyan, Aen
dc.contributor.authorFűrész, Gen
dc.contributor.authorFukui, Aen
dc.contributor.authorEsquerdo, GAen
dc.contributor.authorEsparza-Borges, Een
dc.contributor.authorDumusque, Xen
dc.contributor.authorDressing, CDen
dc.contributor.authorFabrizio, LDen
dc.contributor.authorCollins, KAen
dc.contributor.authorCameron, ACen
dc.contributor.authorChristiansen, JLen
dc.contributor.authorCecconi, Men
dc.contributor.authorBuchhave, LAen
dc.contributor.authorBoschin, Wen
dc.contributor.authorAndreuzzi, Gen
dc.date.accessioned2021-05-24T23:30:43Z
dc.date.available2021-05-24T23:30:43Z
dc.date.issued2021-08-01en
dc.identifier.issn0004-6256
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/322903
dc.description.abstractStudies of close-in planets orbiting M dwarfs have suggested that the M dwarf radius valley may be well-explained by distinct formation timescales between enveloped terrestrials, and rocky planets that form at late times in a gas-depleted environment. This scenario is at odds with the picture that close-in rocky planets form with a primordial gaseous envelope that is subsequently stripped away by some thermally-driven mass loss process. These two physical scenarios make unique predictions of the rocky/enveloped transition's dependence on orbital separation such that studying the compositions of planets within the M dwarf radius valley may be able to establish the dominant physics. Here, we present the discovery of one such keystone planet: the ultra-short period planet TOI-1634 b ($P=0.989$ days, $F=121 F_{\oplus}$, $r_p = 1.790^{+0.080}_{-0.081} R_{\oplus}$) orbiting a nearby M2 dwarf ($K_s=8.7$, $R_s=0.45 R_{\odot}$, $M_s=0.50 M_{\odot}$) and whose size and orbital period sit within the M dwarf radius valley. We confirm the TESS-discovered planet candidate using extensive ground-based follow-up campaigns, including a set of 32 precise radial velocity measurements from HARPS-N. We measure a planetary mass of $4.91^{+0.68}_{-0.70} M_{\oplus}$, which makes TOI-1634 b inconsistent with an Earth-like composition at $5.9\sigma$ and thus requires either an extended gaseous envelope, a large volatile-rich layer, or a rocky portion that is not dominated by iron and silicates to explain its mass and radius. The discovery that the bulk composition of TOI-1634 b is inconsistent with that of the Earth favors the gas-depleted formation mechanism to explain the emergence of the radius valley around M dwarfs with $M_s\lesssim 0.5 M_{\odot}$.
dc.publisherIOP Publishing
dc.rightsAll rights reserved
dc.titleTOI-1634 b: An Ultra-short-period Keystone Planet Sitting inside the M-dwarf Radius Valleyen
dc.typeArticle
prism.issueIdentifier2en
prism.publicationDate2021en
prism.publicationNameAstronomical Journalen
prism.volume162en
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.70359
dcterms.dateAccepted2021-05-14en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.3847/1538-3881/ac0157en
rioxxterms.versionAM
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2021-08-01en
dc.contributor.orcidCloutier, R [0000-0001-5383-9393]
dc.contributor.orcidCharbonneau, D [0000-0002-9003-484X]
dc.contributor.orcidStassun, KG [0000-0002-3481-9052]
dc.contributor.orcidMurgas, F [0000-0001-9087-1245]
dc.contributor.orcidMortier, Annelies [0000-0001-7254-4363]
dc.contributor.orcidMassey, R [0000-0001-8879-7138]
dc.contributor.orcidLissauer, JJ [0000-0001-6513-1659]
dc.contributor.orcidLatham, DW [0000-0001-9911-7388]
dc.contributor.orcidHaywood, RD [0000-0001-9140-3574]
dc.contributor.orcidGuerra, P [0000-0002-4308-2339]
dc.contributor.orcidGiacalone, SA [0000-0002-8965-3969]
dc.contributor.orcidBieryla, A [0000-0001-6637-5401]
dc.contributor.orcidWinn, J [0000-0002-4265-047X]
dc.contributor.orcidWatson, CA [0000-0002-9718-3266]
dc.contributor.orcidVanderspek, R [0000-0001-6763-6562]
dc.contributor.orcidUdry, S [0000-0001-7576-6236]
dc.contributor.orcidTamura, M [0000-0002-6510-0681]
dc.contributor.orcidSozzetti, A [0000-0002-7504-365X]
dc.contributor.orcidShporer, A [0000-0002-1836-3120]
dc.contributor.orcidSégransan, D [0000-0003-2355-8034]
dc.contributor.orcidSeager, S [0000-0002-6892-6948]
dc.contributor.orcidSavel, AB [0000-0002-2454-768X]
dc.contributor.orcidSasselov, D [0000-0001-7014-1771]
dc.contributor.orcidRose, M [0000-0003-4724-745X]
dc.contributor.orcidRicker, G [0000-0003-2058-6662]
dc.contributor.orcidRice, K [0000-0002-6379-9185]
dc.contributor.orcidQuintana, EV [0000-0003-1309-2904]
dc.contributor.orcidQuinn, SN [0000-0002-8964-8377]
dc.contributor.orcidPiotto, G [0000-0002-9937-6387]
dc.contributor.orcidPhillips, D [0000-0001-5132-1339]
dc.contributor.orcidPedani, M [0000-0002-5752-6260]
dc.contributor.orcidParviainen, H [0000-0001-5519-1391]
dc.contributor.orcidPalle, E [0000-0003-0987-1593]
dc.contributor.orcidNarita, N [0000-0001-8511-2981]
dc.contributor.orcidMolinari, E [0000-0002-1742-7735]
dc.contributor.orcidMicela, G [0000-0002-9900-4751]
dc.contributor.orcidMayor, M [0000-0002-9352-5935]
dc.contributor.orcidMatson, RA [0000-0001-7233-7508]
dc.contributor.orcidLópez-Morales, M [0000-0003-3204-8183]
dc.contributor.orcidKusakabe, N [0000-0001-9194-1268]
dc.contributor.orcidJensen, ELN [0000-0002-4625-7333]
dc.contributor.orcidJenkins, JM [0000-0002-4715-9460]
dc.contributor.orcidHuang, CX [0000-0003-0918-7484]
dc.contributor.orcidHowell, SB [0000-0002-2532-2853]
dc.contributor.orcidFukui, A [0000-0002-4909-5763]
dc.contributor.orcidEsquerdo, GA [0000-0002-9789-5474]
dc.contributor.orcidEsparza-Borges, E [0000-0002-2341-3233]
dc.contributor.orcidDumusque, X [0000-0002-9332-2011]
dc.contributor.orcidDressing, CD [0000-0001-8189-0233]
dc.contributor.orcidCollins, KA [0000-0001-6588-9574]
dc.contributor.orcidCameron, AC [0000-0002-8863-7828]
dc.contributor.orcidChristiansen, JL [0000-0002-8035-4778]
dc.contributor.orcidBuchhave, LA [0000-0003-1605-5666]
dc.contributor.orcidBoschin, W [0000-0001-9978-9109]
dc.identifier.eissn1538-3881
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
cam.orpheus.successMon Aug 16 07:31:11 BST 2021 - Embargo updated*
cam.orpheus.counter11*
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2021-08-31


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