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dc.contributor.authorvan Veen, Ernest
dc.contributor.authorvan der Jagt, Mathieu
dc.contributor.authorCiterio, Giuseppe
dc.contributor.authorStocchetti, Nino
dc.contributor.authorGommers, Diederik
dc.contributor.authorBurdorf, Alex
dc.contributor.authorMenon, David K
dc.contributor.authorMaas, Andrew IR
dc.contributor.authorKompanje, Erwin JO
dc.contributor.authorLingsma, Hester F
dc.contributor.authorCENTER-TBI investigators and participants
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: In patients with severe brain injury, withdrawal of life-sustaining measures (WLSM) is common in intensive care units (ICU). WLSM constitutes a dilemma: instituting WLSM too early could result in death despite the possibility of an acceptable functional outcome, whereas delaying WLSM could unnecessarily burden patients, families, clinicians, and hospital resources. We aimed to describe the occurrence and timing of WLSM, and factors associated with timing of WLSM in European ICUs in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: The CENTER-TBI Study is a prospective multi-center cohort study. For the current study, patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to the ICU and aged 16 or older were included. Occurrence and timing of WLSM were documented. For the analyses, we dichotomized timing of WLSM in early (< 72 h after injury) versus later (≥ 72 h after injury) based on recent guideline recommendations. We assessed factors associated with initiating WLSM early versus later, including geographic region, center, patient, injury, and treatment characteristics with univariable and multivariable (mixed effects) logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 2022 patients aged 16 or older were admitted to the ICU. ICU mortality was 13% (n = 267). Of these, 229 (86%) patients died after WLSM, and were included in the analyses. The occurrence of WLSM varied between regions ranging from 0% in Eastern Europe to 96% in Northern Europe. In 51% of the patients, WLSM was early. Patients in the early WLSM group had a lower maximum therapy intensity level (TIL) score than patients in the later WLSM group (median of 5 versus 10) The strongest independent variables associated with early WLSM were one unreactive pupil (odds ratio (OR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-12.4) or two unreactive pupils (OR 5.8, CI 2.6-13.1) compared to two reactive pupils, and an Injury Severity Score (ISS) if over 41 (OR per point above 41 = 1.1, CI 1.0-1.1). Timing of WLSM was not significantly associated with region or center. CONCLUSION: WLSM occurs early in half of the patients, mostly in patients with severe TBI affecting brainstem reflexes who were severely injured. We found no regional or center influences in timing of WLSM. Whether WLSM is always appropriate or may contribute to a self-fulfilling prophecy requires further research and argues for reluctance to institute WLSM early in case of any doubt on prognosis.
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International
dc.subjectCritical care
dc.subjectIntensive care unit
dc.subjectTraumatic brain injury
dc.subjectBrain Injuries, Traumatic
dc.subjectCohort Studies
dc.subjectGlasgow Coma Scale
dc.subjectIntensive Care Units
dc.subjectProspective Studies
dc.titleOccurrence and timing of withdrawal of life-sustaining measures in traumatic brain injury patients: a CENTER-TBI study.
prism.publicationNameIntensive Care Medicine
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
pubs.funder-project-idEuropean Commission (602150)
pubs.funder-project-idAcademy of Medical Sciences (unknown)

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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 4.0 International