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dc.contributor.authorRokhum, SL
dc.contributor.authorChangmai, B
dc.contributor.authorKress, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorWheatley, Andrew
dc.description.abstractCarbon-based solid acid catalysts possessing up to 1.29 mmol g-1 –SO3H active centers were synthesized from glucose via an efficient one-pot hydrothermal carbonization-sulfonation without the need for high temperatures. Catalysts combined aromatic structure with hydrophilic –OH and –COOH groups and a high density of –SO3H centers (up to a total acid density of 5.31 mmol g-1). The level of –SO3H (0.81-1.29 mmol g-1) proved synthetically tunable. The relevance of the catalyst to the production of more sustainable fuels was tested using oleic acid (a free fatty acid whose esterification can be employed as a model for biodiesel production). Optimizing catalyst and conditions (20:1 MeOH:oleic acid molar ratio, 5 wt. % catalyst loading wrt oleic acid, 80 °C, 120 min.) enabled oleic acid esterification to the corresponding methyl oleate (a biodiesel component) with 97.50.4% conversion and a low 37.6 kJ mol-1 activation energy. Activity loss upon re-use of the catalyst was proved to be by de-sulfonation and could be completely reversed. Hence, re-sulfonation of spent catalyst by a one-step process again delivered a 97.4+/-0.5 % conversion of oleic acid.
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
dc.titleA one-pot route to tunable sugar-derived sulfonated carbon catalysts for sustainable production of biodiesel by fatty acid esterification
dc.publisher.departmentDepartment of Chemistry
prism.publicationNameRenewable Energy
dc.contributor.orcidRokhum, SL [0000-0001-8820-569X]
dc.contributor.orcidKress, Thomas [0000-0001-9133-4310]
dc.contributor.orcidWheatley, Andrew [0000-0002-2624-6063]
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
pubs.funder-project-idEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/P030467/1)
cam.orpheus.successTue Feb 01 19:02:23 GMT 2022 - Embargo updated*
pubs.licence-display-nameApollo Repository Deposit Licence Agreement

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International