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dc.contributor.authorRokhum, SL
dc.contributor.authorChangmai, B
dc.contributor.authorKress, T
dc.contributor.authorWheatley, AEH
dc.date.accessioned2021-12-09T00:30:05Z
dc.date.available2021-12-09T00:30:05Z
dc.date.issued2022
dc.identifier.issn0960-1481
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/331273
dc.description.abstractCarbon-based solid acid catalysts possessing up to 1.29 mmol g-1 –SO3H active centers were synthesized from glucose via an efficient one-pot hydrothermal carbonization-sulfonation without the need for high temperatures. Catalysts combined aromatic structure with hydrophilic –OH and –COOH groups and a high density of –SO3H centers (up to a total acid density of 5.31 mmol g-1). The level of –SO3H (0.81-1.29 mmol g-1) proved synthetically tunable. The relevance of the catalyst to the production of more sustainable fuels was tested using oleic acid (a free fatty acid whose esterification can be employed as a model for biodiesel production). Optimizing catalyst and conditions (20:1 MeOH:oleic acid molar ratio, 5 wt. % catalyst loading wrt oleic acid, 80 °C, 120 min.) enabled oleic acid esterification to the corresponding methyl oleate (a biodiesel component) with 97.50.4% conversion and a low 37.6 kJ mol-1 activation energy. Activity loss upon re-use of the catalyst was proved to be by de-sulfonation and could be completely reversed. Hence, re-sulfonation of spent catalyst by a one-step process again delivered a 97.4+/-0.5 % conversion of oleic acid.
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.titleA one-pot route to tunable sugar-derived sulfonated carbon catalysts for sustainable production of biodiesel by fatty acid esterification
dc.typeArticle
dc.publisher.departmentDepartment of Chemistry
dc.date.updated2021-12-03T12:38:30Z
prism.publicationNameRenewable Energy
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.78720
dcterms.dateAccepted2021-12-01
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1016/j.renene.2021.12.001
rioxxterms.versionAM
dc.contributor.orcidRokhum, SL [0000-0001-8820-569X]
dc.identifier.eissn1879-0682
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
pubs.funder-project-idEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/P030467/1)
cam.issuedOnline2021-12-08
datacite.issupplementedby.urlhttps://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.78670
cam.orpheus.successTue Feb 01 19:02:23 GMT 2022 - Embargo updated
cam.depositDate2021-12-03
pubs.licence-identifierapollo-deposit-licence-2-1
pubs.licence-display-nameApollo Repository Deposit Licence Agreement
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2023-01-31


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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International