How fast can we burn, 2.0
We review the state of the art in measurements and simulations of the behavior of premixed laminar and turbulent flames, subject to differential diffusion, stretch and curvature. The first part of the paper reviews the behavior of premixed laminar flames subject to flow stretch, and how it affects the accuracy of measurements of unstrained laminar flame speeds in stretched and spherically propagating flames. We then examine how flow field stretch and differential diffusion interact with flame propagation, promoting or suppressing the onset of thermodiffusive instabilities. Secondly, we survey the methodology for and results of measurements of turbulent flame speeds in the light of theory, and identify issues of consistency in the definition of mean flame speeds, and their corresponding mean areas. Data for methane at a single operating condition are compared for a range of turbulent conditions, showing that fundamental issues that have yet to be resolved for Bunsen and spherically propagating flames. Finally, we consider how the laminar flame scale response of flames to flow perturbations interacting with differential diffusion leads to very different outcomes to the overall sensitivity of the burning rate to turbulence, according to numerical simulations (DNS). The paper concludes with opportunities for future measurements and model development, including the perennial recommendation for robust archival databases of experimental and DNS results for future testing of models.