## Deterministic and Stochastic Approaches to Relaxation to Equilibrium for Particle Systems

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## Abstract

This work is about convergence to equilibrium problems for equations coming from kinetic theory. The bulk of the work is about Hypocoercivity. Hypocoercivity is the phenomenon when a semigroup shows exponentially relaxation towards equilibrium without the corresponding coercivity (dissipativity) inequality on the Dirichlet form in the natural space, i.e. a lack of contractivity. In this work we look at showing hypocoercivity in weak measure distances, and using probabilistic techniques. First we review the history of convergence to equilibrium for kinetic equations, particularly for spatially inhomogeneous kinetic theory (Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck equations) which motivates hypocoercivity. We also review the existing work on showing hypocoercivity using probabilistic techniques.

We then present three different ways of showing hypocoercivity using stochastic tools. First we study the kinetic Fokker-Planck equation on the torus. We give two different coupling strategies to show convergence in Wasserstein distance,

We also look at showing hypocoercivity in relative entropy. In his seminal work work on hypocoercivity Villani obtained results on hypocoercivity in relative entropy for the kinetic Fokker-Planck equation. We review this and subsequent work on hypocoercivity in relative entropy which is restricted to diffusions. We show entropic hypocoercivity for the linear relaxation Boltzmann equation on the torus which is a non-local collision equation. Here we can work around issues arising from the fact that the equation is not in the H"{o}rmander sum of squares form used by Villani, by carefully modulating the entropy with hydrodynamical quantities. We also briefly review the work of others to show a similar result for a close to quadratic confining potential and then show hypocoercivity for the linear Boltzmann equation with close to quadratic confining potential using similar techniques.

We also look at convergence to equilibrium for Kac's model coupled to a non-equilibrium thermostat. Here the equation is directly coercive rather than hypocoercive. We show existence and uniqueness of a steady state for this model. We then show that the solution will converge exponentially fast towards this steady state both in the GTW metric (a weak measure distance based on Fourier transforms) and in