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Research data supporting "Effects of Reaction pH on Self-Crosslinked Chitosan-Carrageenan Polyelectrolyte Complex Gels and Sponges"

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Al-Zebari, Nawar 


Macromolecular biomaterials often require covalent crosslinking to achieve adequate stability for their given application. However, the use of auxiliary chemicals may be associated with long-term toxicity in the body. Oppositely-charged polyelectrolytes (PEs) have the advantage that they can self-crosslink electrostatically and those derived from marine organisms such as chitosan (CS) and carrageenan (CRG) are inexpensive non-toxic alternatives to glycosaminoglycans present in the extracellular matrix of human tissues. The aim of this study was to explore the properties of crosslinker-free PEC gels and freeze-dried PEC sponges based on CS and CRG precursors. We offer new insights into the optimisation of conditions and mechanisms involved in the process and offer a systematic study of property changes across a full range of pH values. Zeta potential measurements indicated that the PECs produced at pH 2-6 had a high strength of electrostatic interaction with the highest being at pH 4-5. This resulted in strong intra-crosslinking in the PEC gels which led to the formation of higher yield, viscosity, fibre content and lower moisture content. The weaker interaction between CS and CRG at pH 7-12 resulted in higher levels of CS incorporated into the complex and the formation of more inter-crosslinking through entanglements and secondary interactions between PEC units. This resulted in the production of stable PEC sponge materials compared with the PEC materials produced at pH 6 and below. From the range of samples tested, the PECs produced at pH 7.4 appeared to show the optimum combination of yield, stability and homogeneity.


Software / Usage instructions

Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel


chitosan, carageenan, polysaccharide, polyelectrolyte complex, self-crosslinking


European Research Council (320598)