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Network analysis of the hominin origin of Herpes Simplex virus 2 from fossil data

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Underdown, S 
Kumar, K 
Houldcroft, CJ 


Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) is a human herpesvirus found worldwide that causes genital lesions and more rarely causes encephalitis. This pathogen is most common in Africa, and particularly in central and east Africa, an area of particular significance for the evolution of modern humans. Unlike HSV1, HSV2 has not simply co-speciated with humans from their last common ancestor with primates. HSV2 jumped the species barrier between 1.4 and 3 MYA, most likely through intermediate but unknown hominin species. In this article, we use probability-based network analysis to determine the most probable transmission path between intermediate hosts of HSV2, from the ancestors of chimpanzees to the ancestors of modern humans, using paleo-environmental data on the distribution of African tropical rainforest over the last 3 million years and data on the age and distribution of fossil species of hominin present in Africa between 1.4 and 3 MYA. Our model identifies Paranthropus boisei as the most likely intermediate host of HSV2, while Homo habilis may also have played a role in the initial transmission of HSV2 from the ancestors of chimpanzees to P.boisei.



network analysis, human evolution, infectious disease, virology, archaeology

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Virus Evolution

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Oxford University Press
SJU was funded by Oxford Brookes University. KK and CH were funded by the University of Cambridge. KK is a college research associate at King’s College, Cambridge. CH is a post-doctoral affiliate at Christ’s College, Cambridge.