Scholarly Works - Architecture


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 74
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    Cell geometry across the ring structure of Sitka spruce.
    (The Royal Society, 2018-05) Reynolds, TPS; Burridge, HC; Johnston, R; Wu, G; Shah, DU; Scherman, OA; Linden, PF; Ramage, MH; Reynolds, TPS [0000-0002-6754-9183]; Burridge, HC [0000-0002-0719-355X]; Johnston, R [0000-0003-1977-6418]; Wu, G [0000-0002-9690-5992]; Shah, DU [0000-0002-8078-6802]; Scherman, OA [0000-0001-8032-7166]
    For wood to be used to its full potential as an engineering material, it is necessary to quantify links between its cell geometry and the properties it exhibits at bulk scale. Doing so will make it possible to predict timber properties crucial to engineering, such as mechanical strength and stiffness, and the resistance to fluid flow, and to inform strategies to improve those properties as required, as well as to measure the effects of interventions such as genetic manipulation and chemical modification. Strength, stiffness and permeability of timber all derive from the geometry of its cells, and yet current practice is to predict them based on properties, such as bulk density, that do not directly describe the cell structure. This work explores links between micro-computed tomography data for structural-size pieces of wood, which show the variation of porosity across the wood's ring structure, and high-resolution tomography showing the geometry of the cells, from which we measure cell length, lumen area, porosity, cell wall thickness and the number density of cells. High-resolution scans, while informative, are time-consuming and expensive to run on a large number of samples at the scale of building components. By scanning the same volume of timber at both low and high resolutions (high-resolution scans over a near-continuous volume of timber of approx. 20 mm3 at 15 μm3 per voxel), we are able to demonstrate correlations between the measurements at the two different resolutions, reveal the physical basis for these correlations, and demonstrate that the data from the low-resolution scan can be used to estimate the variation in (small-scale) cell geometry throughout a structural-size piece of wood.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Chemical composition of processed bamboo for structural applications.
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018) Sharma, Bhavna; Shah, Darshil U; Beaugrand, Johnny; Janeček, Emma-Rose; Scherman, Oren A; Ramage, Michael H; Sharma, Bhavna [0000-0003-0516-6125]
    Natural materials are a focus for development of low carbon products for a variety of applications. To utilise these materials, processing is required to meet acceptable industry standards. Laminated bamboo is a commercial product that is currently being explored for structural applications, however there is a gap in knowledge about the effects of commercial processing on the chemical composition. The present study utilised interdisciplinary methods of analysis to investigate the effects of processing on the composition of bamboo. Two common commercial processing methods were investigated: bleaching (chemical treatment) and caramelisation (hygrothermal treatment). The study indicated that the bleaching process results in a more pronounced degradation of the lignin in comparison to the caramelised bamboo. This augments previous research, which has shown that the processing method (strip size) and treatment may affect the mechanical properties of the material in the form of overall strength, failure modes and crack propagation. The study provides additional understanding of the effects of processing on the properties of bamboo.
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    Measuring light in field experiments using dummies and objects: A study of concert lighting
    (SAGE Publications, 2018) Lo, VWL; Steemers, KA; Steemers, Koen [0000-0001-8135-158X]
    Lighting experiments were performed in a real context populated with dummies and objects. Using the King’s College Chapel in Cambridge as a case study, two field surveys of concert lighting were performed, one with the chapel empty and one with it occupied. In each survey, photometric data were collected under three electric lighting conditions and from six different viewing positions. A comparative analysis indicates that the data gathered from the occupied space represent the luminances more accurately, present a more detailed description of the light distribution, and provide a more extensive set of variables characterising the geometrical details of the visual scene. This study demonstrates the importance of using occupied spaces and considering the presence of occupants in field studies, which could be useful for obtaining a more complete understanding of complex luminous environments.
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    Biomimetic Supramolecular Fibers Exhibit Water-Induced Supercontraction.
    (Wiley, 2018-07) Wu, Yuchao; Shah, Darshil U; Wang, Baoyuan; Liu, Ji; Ren, Xiaohe; Ramage, Michael H; Scherman, Oren A; Scherman, Oren A [0000-0001-8032-7166]
    Spider silk is a fascinating material, combining high strength and elasticity that outperforms most synthetic fibers. Another intriguing feature of spider silk is its ability to "supercontract," shrinking up to 50% when exposed to water. This is likely on account of the entropy-driven recoiling of secondary structured proteins when water penetrates the spider silk. In contrast, humidity-driven contraction in synthetic fibers is difficult to achieve. Here, inspired by the spider silk model, a supercontractile fiber (SCF), which contracts up to 50% of its original length at high humidity, comparable to spider silk, is reported. The fiber exhibits up to 300% uptake of water by volume, confirmed via environmental scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, the SCF exhibits tunable mechanical properties by varying humidity, which is reflected by the prolonged failure strain and the reversible damping capacity. This smart supramolecular fiber material provides a new opportunity of fabricating biomimetic muscle for diverse applications.
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    Investigating an Adequate Level of Modelling for Energy Analysis of Domestic Buildings
    Heo, Y; Ren, G; Sunikka-Blank, M; Heo, Yeonsook [0000-0003-3809-6899]; Ren, Guangying [0000-0001-5819-0001]; Sunikka-Blank, Minna [0000-0002-1765-3046]
    This paper investigates what level of modelling is required to appropriately support energy analysis of domestic buildings. The paper analyses the effect of simplications made in thermal zoning and internal loads scheduling through a case study of a UK domestic building. The case study provides quantified effects of common simplications made in practice on the accuracy of energy predictions by making simplications in the model incrementally and estimating the effect of individual simplications on electricity and heating demand predictions.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Household archetypes and behavioural patterns in UK domestic energy use
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018) Ben, H; Steemers, K; Ben, H [0000-0002-3305-1432]
    Variations in household behaviour often lead to a mismatch between actual and estimated energy performance at home. More detailed information on behavioural variables could help in improving the prediction of energy consumption and enabling policy interventions responding to different household groups. This research aims to identify household archetypes and behavioural patterns in order to allow a targeted approach in energy-saving policy and retrofit improvement. It employed a statistical approach to cluster households based on empirical data collected from a household survey in Cambridge, UK. Factor analysis was used to identify behavioural factors. Based on the commonalities of variables under each factor, five factors were defined: (1) main space heating, (2) auxiliary space use, (3) main space use, (4) auxiliary space heating and (5) use of appliances. Statistical pattern analysis was then applied to develop behavioural patterns. These patterns were derived based on their factor scores. Finally, non-parametric correlation analysis was carried out in order to determine the relationship between behavioural factors and the following: household or dwelling characteristics, comfort and energy use for creating household archetypes. After significant correlations were found between behavioural factors and other variables, five archetypes were identified: (1) active spenders, (2) conscious occupiers, (3) average users, (4) conservers and (5) inactive users. Among these archetypes, households with a larger house, higher energy use and more complex household composition tended to have longer hours of main space heating, while larger and more complex households tended to use the main space of their dwellings for longer. Using these archetypes allows for a better integration of occupant behaviour into the technically oriented efficiency paradigm. This tailored approach provides a gateway to developing more effective policies and low energy strategies geared towards specific households.
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    Exploring the potential of waste leaf sheath date palm fibres for composite reinforcement through a structural and mechanical analysis
    (Elsevier BV, 2017) Bourmaud, A; Dhakal, H; Habrant, A; Padovani, J; Siniscalco, D; Ramage, MH; Beaugrand, J; Shah, DU; Ramage, Michael [0000-0003-2967-7683]; Shah, Darshil [0000-0002-8078-6802]
    © 2017 This work proposes a multi-scale study of the properties of leaf sheath date palm fibres currently considered as agricultural waste. Firstly, by using optical and electronic microscopy, two main types of bundles were identified which have profoundly different structures. Biochemical analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a low degree of crystallinity but a significant lignin content of about 17% giving the bundles a very cohesive structure as well as a good thermal stability in addition to a singular behaviour in dynamic vapour sorption. An average cell wall stiffness in the order of 16 GPa was highlighted by Atomic Force Microscopy in mechanical mode but tensile tests on bundles have revealed low stiffness and strength but a high elongation. These results combined with the cellular structure of these bundles, provides the potential of these wastes as cost effective and environmentally friendly composite reinforcements for high energy absorption and improved acoustics functions.
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    The recovery of natural environments in architecture: Delivering the recovery
    (Elsevier BV, 2018) Short, CA; Short, Alan [0000-0001-5699-0259]
    Abstract A radical return to natural environments in public architecture is proposed. This requires a reasonably sophisticated understanding of building physics on the part of designers but there is a marked reluctance historically in the design community to acquire such expertise for fearing of destroying free artistic expression. This anti-scientific social practice may be the principle barrier to a sustainable future for the built world. The key to unravelling this prejudice may lie in understanding how modern perceptions of safe and comfortable environments evolved through early understanding of disease propogation through the air. The paper presents innovative later nineteenth century hospital designs as proto-modern buildings and suggests that aggressive mid-Twentieth Century advertising of air conditioning killed a highly productive stream of architectural design, overdue for vigorous re-examination to shift the prevailing 'will to form'.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Relationship of structure and stiffness in laminated bamboo composites
    (Elsevier BV, 2018) Penellum, M; Sharma, B; Shah, DU; Foster, RM; Ramage, MH; Sharma, B [0000-0003-0516-6125]
    Laminated bamboo in structural applications has the potential to change the way buildings are constructed. The fibrous microstructure of bamboo can be modelled as a fibre-reinforced composite. This study compares the results of a fibre volume fraction analysis with previous experimental beam bending results. The link between fibre volume fraction and bending stiffness shows that differences previously attributed to preservation treatment in fact arise due to strip thickness. Composite theory provides a basis for the development of future guidance for laminated bamboo, as validated here. Fibre volume fraction analysis is an effective method for non-destructive evaluation of bamboo beam stiffness.
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    Modelling Building Users’ Space Preferences for Group Work: A Discrete-Choice Experiment
    (Taylor & Francis, 2017) Steemers, KA; Cha, SG; Kim, TW; Steemers, Koen [0000-0001-8135-158X]
    Accurate space-use prediction helps architects to optimise space efficiency in buildings, thereby achieving economic and environmental sustainability. However, current space-use prediction models and approaches either disregard or oversimplify the role of building users’ space preferences in spatial-choice behaviour, thereby compromising prediction accuracy. The aim of this study was thus to develop a space-preference model of spatial choice behaviour with a focus on group work-related activities. A total of 2,464 observations of spatial choices were collected using a discrete-choice experiment. The data were modelled using a conditional logit model and then validated in a predictive success test. The resulting model clearly explains space preferences for group work-related activities and predicts spatial-choice behaviour by generating space-use probabilities for given spaces. The model is compared to a space preference model for individual work-related activities. Lastly, the application of the model was demonstrated in a case example.
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    Ten questions concerning sustainable domestic thermal retrofit policy research
    (Elsevier BV, 2017) Galvin, R; Sunikka-Blank, M; Galvin, R [0000-0001-9279-4263]
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    The impact of carbon emission costs on manufacturers' production and location decision
    (Elsevier, 2017-11) Wu, P; Jin, Y; Shi, Y; Shyu, H; Jin, Ying [0000-0003-2683-6829]; Shi, Yongjiang [0000-0001-8739-6244]
    This paper investigates how emerging carbon emission costs may affect the joint production and location decisions for a manufacturer across the world's regions. Specifically, we develop a new theoretical model which explicitly links product demand, production costs and carbon emission levels to location decisions, and investigate the manufacturer's optimal decisions between two distinct regions. The results show that the influence of carbon emissions on manufacturers' decisions can vary greatly under different circumstances: both off-shoring and near-shoring are possible under rising carbon emission costs; manufacturers with high or low demand have different tolerance levels to the rising carbon emission costs when considering an alternative location; trade costs can change the pattern of relocation. To gain policy insights for those who pursue reducing carbon emissions, different product examples are used to calculate the critical carbon price which triggers different location choices. The results suggest that if production technology is stable, raising carbon cost itself has only limited effects on reducing total carbon emissions, especially for high-value-low-emission industries. The location shift, which is more sensitive to changes in variable carbon emissions, may lead to a significant emission reduction when completed. Additional pricing decision from the manufacturer shows no significant effect on the location decisions; however, if demand is linked directly to carbon emission footprint of the product, then it is more hopeful that a raised carbon price would reduce the carbon emissions significantly through relocation.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Thermal relaxation of laminated bamboo for folded shells
    (Elsevier, 2017-10-15) Ramage, MH; Sharma, B; Shah, DU; Reynolds, TPS; Ramage, Michael [0000-0003-2967-7683]; Shah, Darshil [0000-0002-8078-6802]; Reynolds, Thomas [0000-0002-6754-9183]
    Laminated bamboo is emerging as a novel material in design and construction. As a natural fibre composite, it has unique mechanical properties that allow for innovations that are not possible in other materials. Here, we discuss one new application of those properties: the development of a novel bending technique using high temperature, and we explore its implications for design. We have explored the fundamental properties of laminated bamboo and its thermal relaxation asit passes the glass transition temperatures of its constituent polymers.By mechanically thinning engineered bamboo material, score lines allow precise, controlled and localised heating that promotes limited but essential elasto-plastic behaviour. Concentrated heating above the glass transition temperature induces property evolution and structural morphology changes, which results in thermal relaxation with minimal recovery and full set upon cooling.This original technology is then deployed in the design and construction of a folded plate helical shell composed of thin laminated bamboo sheets.
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    The strength of plants: theory and experimental methods to measure the mechanical properties of stems
    (Oxford University Press, 2017-07-20) Shah, DU; Reynolds, TPS; Ramage, MH; Shah, Darshil [0000-0002-8078-6802]; Reynolds, Thomas [0000-0002-6754-9183]; Ramage, Michael [0000-0003-2967-7683]
    From the stems of agricultural crops to the structural trunks of trees, studying the mechanical behaviour of plant stems is critical for both commerce and science. Plant scientists are also increasingly relying on mechanical test data for plant phenotyping. Yet there are neither standardized methods nor systematic reviews of current methods for the testing of herbaceous stems. We discuss the architecture of plant stems and highlight important micro- and macrostructural parameters that need to be controlled and accounted for when designing test methodologies, or that need to be understood in order to explain observed mechanical behaviour. Then, we critically evaluate various methods to test structural properties of stems, including flexural bending (two-, three-, and four-point bending) and axial loading (tensile, compressive, and buckling) tests. Recommendations are made on best practices. This review is relevant to fundamental studies exploring plant biomechanics, mechanical phenotyping of plants, and the determinants of mechanical properties in cell walls, as well as to application-focused studies, such as in agro-breeding and forest management projects, aiming to understand deformation processes of stem structures. The methods explored here can also be extended to other elongated, rod-shaped organs (e.g. petioles, midribs, and even roots).
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    Homely social practices, uncanny electricity demands: Class, culture and material dynamics in Pakistan
    (Elsevier, 2017-12-01) Khalid, R; Sunikka-Blank, M; Khalid, Rihab [0000-0002-3937-8030]; Sunikka-Blank, Minna [0000-0002-1765-3046]
    This research seeks to address the gap in studies of energy consumption in developing countries from a social science perspective. The research uses Social Practice Theory (SPT) to gain better understanding of homeowners’ practices and resulting electricity demand in middle-class households in Pakistan, with broader implications for other developing countries with similar climatic and socio-material contexts. Drawing on the works of Bourdieu (1984, 1997), Schatzki (2011) and Shove and Pantzar (2005), the study aims to unravel the connection between familiar domestic practices and the ‘uncanny’ electricity demand. Material and social constructs of ‘homely’ household practices related to comfort, lighting, cleanliness, cooking and ICT were studied in ten middle-class households in Lahore, Pakistan. The material arrays of the intermittent electricity provision system, modernistic prefigurations of spaces preferred by the middle-class and electrical appliances play an intrinsic role in shaping, and in turn being shaped by, everyday practices. Practices shaped by specific socio-cultural dimensions, such as social acceptance within the neighbourhood community, religious meanings, joint family structures, age disparities and gender segregation. The empirical study aims to further the conceptualisation of socially differentiated practices in domestic socio-material and cultural context of developing countries.
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    Bayesian Updating of Earthquake Vulnerability Functions with Application to Mortality Rates
    (Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 2017-08-16) Noh, HY; Kiremidjian, A; Ceferino, L; So, E; So, Emily [0000-0002-2460-0452]
    Vulnerability functions often rely on data from expert opinion, post-earthquake investigations, or analytical simulations. Combining the information can be particularly challenging. In this paper a Bayesian statistical framework is presented to combining disparate information. The framework is illustrated through application to earthquake mortality data obtained from the 2005 Pakistan earthquake and from PAGER. Three different models are tested including an exponential, a combination of Bernoulli and exponential and Bernoulli and gamma fit to model respectively zero and non-zero mortality rates. A novel Bayesian model for the Bernoulli exponential and Bernoulli-gamma probability densities is introduced. It is found that the exponential distribution represents the zero casualties very poorly. The Bernoulli-exponential and Bernoulli-gamma models capture the data for both the zero and non-zero mortality rates. It is also shown that the Bernoulli-gamma model fits the 2005 Pakistan data the best and has uncertainties that are smaller than either the ones from the 2005 Pakistan data or the PAGER data.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    The wood from the trees: The use of timber in construction
    (Elsevier, 2017-02-01) Ramage, MH; Burridge, H; Busse-Wicher, M; Fereday, G; Reynolds, T; Shah, DU; Wu, G; Yu, L; Fleming, P; Densley-Tingley, D; Allwood, J; Dupree, P; Linden, PF; Scherman, O; Ramage, Michael [0000-0003-2967-7683]; Shah, Darshil [0000-0002-8078-6802]; Wu, Guanglu [0000-0002-9690-5992]; Allwood, Julian M. [0000-0003-0931-3831]; Dupree, Paul [0000-0001-9270-6286]; Linden, Paul [0000-0002-8511-2241]; Scherman, Oren [0000-0001-8032-7166]
    Trees, and their derivative products, have been used by societies around the world for thousands of years. Contemporary construction of tall buildings from timber, in whole or in part, suggests a growing interest in the potential for building with wood at a scale not previously attainable. As wood is the only significant building material that is grown, we have a natural inclination that building in wood is good for the environment. But under what conditions is this really the case? The environmental benefits of using timber are not straightforward; although it is a natural product, a large amount of energy is used to dry and process it. Much of this can come from the biomass of the tree itself, but that requires investment in plant, which is not always possible in an industry that is widely distributed among many small producers. And what should we build with wood? Are skyscrapers in timber a good use of this natural resource, or are there other aspects of civil and structural engineering, or large-scale infrastructure, that would be a better use of wood? Here, we consider a holistic picture ranging in scale from the science of the cell wall to the engineering and global policies that could maximise forestry and timber construction as a boon to both people and the planet.
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Tension: Experimental Results and Analysis
    (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2017) Foster, RM; Lees, JM; Morley, CT; Foster, Robert [0000-0002-6640-1793]; Lees, Janet [0000-0002-8295-8321]
    This study applies a plastic approach to the analysis of shear at a joint or interface in reinforced concrete. Push-off tests have been used historically to investigate combinations of shear and compression across an interface in reinforced concrete. Recent work by the authors has shown that such tests can also be modified to model combinations of shear and tension; as is often found at critical interfaces such as joints in reinforced concrete structures. New experimental results are presented for modified push-off tests subject to a range of combinations of shear and tension. These results, along with a number of historical results reported in the literature are analysed using the upper bound theory of plasticity for interface shear. It is shown that the behaviour predicted by the upper bound theory is consistent with the new experimental results for an initially uncracked concrete interface subject to combinations of shear and tension. Effectiveness factors for the plastic analysis indicated by the experimental results are proposed.
  • ItemAccepted versionOpen Access
    Transnational urban heritage? Constructing shared places in Polish-German border towns
    (Taylor & Francis, 2017-06-08) Sternberg, MJ; Sternberg, Max [0000-0003-0205-8073]
    This paper focuses on the urban context and spatial manifestations of the construction of shared heritage sites resulting from cross-border interactions in Polish-German border towns. A comparison of the three border towns of Frankfurt(Oder)/Słubice, Guben/Gubin and Görlitz/Zgorzelec offers insights into the relationship between the creation of transnational urban places and the contrasting spatial circumstances in the urban environments of the border towns. The greater permeability of the border in the Schengen period from 2007 has intensified cross-border activity, and actors from both sides of the river have cooperated to create new shared places, most prominent among these are heritage sites. These new transnational heritage sites emphasise different aspects of the past, including valorising ‘neutral’ heritage, rediscovering sites of trauma and victimhood, or reinventing existing sites. While divisions persist, rooted as much in the burden of the past as current socio-economic asymmetries, some evidence is coming to light of the forging of shared heritage sites linked to narratives of reconciliation and mutual recognition. The creation of shared heritage is a fragile process which depends on contingent urban conditions. This paper draws attention to the need for heritage sites to evolve gradually and with significant participation from civil activists if they are to gain local transnational significance. Moreover, heritage sites only have transformative potential when they become integrated in the urban environment as active settings for everyday life which transcend commemorative or tourist purposes alone.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Classification Of Geometry For Deployable Structures Used For Innovation: Design Of New Surfaces With Scissor 2 Bar, And Form Generation Method Of Relative Ratios
    (WIT Press, 2017-06-01) Rivas Adrover, E
    Deployable structures can expand and/or contract due to their geometrical, material and mechanical properties. This research proposes a classification of geometry for deployable structures. This classification system applied to structures made with scissor 2 bar can lead to architectural innovation. This is demonstrated in the case study of a new design for surfaces based on scissors 2 bar. Through this case study a form generation method of relative ratios is formulated that can be applied to infinite geometrical arrangements. This geometry classification is an attempt to seek further understanding of the subject of deployable structures. In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of this field, different ways of ordering information are being considered.