Item Accepted version Open AccessChronic Supplementation With a Mitochondrial Antioxidant (MitoQ) Improves Vascular Function in Healthy Older Adults.(Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), 2018-06) Rossman, Matthew J; Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Steward, Chelsea AC; Bispham, Nina Z; Cuevas, Lauren M; Rosenberg, Hannah L; Woodward, Kayla A; Chonchol, Michel; Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A; Murphy, Michael P; Seals, Douglas R; Murphy, Mike [0000-0003-1115-9618]UNLABELLED: Excess reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria is a key mechanism of age-related vascular dysfunction. Our laboratory has shown that supplementation with the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant MitoQ improves vascular endothelial function by reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and ameliorates arterial stiffening in old mice, but the effects in humans are unknown. Here, we sought to translate our preclinical findings to humans and determine the safety and efficacy of MitoQ. Twenty healthy older adults (60-79 years) with impaired endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation <6%) underwent 6 weeks of oral supplementation with MitoQ (20 mg/d) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design study. MitoQ was well tolerated, and plasma MitoQ was higher after the treatment versus placebo period (P<0.05). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was 42% higher after MitoQ versus placebo (P<0.05); the improvement was associated with amelioration of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-related suppression of endothelial function (assessed as the increase in flow-mediated dilation with acute, supratherapeutic MitoQ [160 mg] administration; n=9; P<0.05). Aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity) was lower after MitoQ versus placebo (P<0.05) in participants with elevated baseline levels (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity >7.60 m/s; n=11). Plasma oxidized LDL (low-density lipoprotein), a marker of oxidative stress, also was lower after MitoQ versus placebo (P<0.05). Participant characteristics, endothelium-independent dilation (sublingual nitroglycerin), and circulating markers of inflammation were not different (all P>0.1). These findings in humans extend earlier preclinical observations and suggest that MitoQ and other therapeutic strategies targeting mitochondrial reactive oxygen species may hold promise for treating age-related vascular dysfunction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02597023. Item Published version Open AccessRespiratory Complex I in Bos taurus and Paracoccus denitrificans Pumps Four Protons across the Membrane for Every NADH Oxidized.(Elsevier BV, 2017-03-24) Jones, Andrew JY; Blaza, James N; Varghese, Febin; Hirst, Judy; Hirst, Judy [0000-0001-8667-6797]Respiratory complex I couples electron transfer between NADH and ubiquinone to proton translocation across an energy-transducing membrane to support the proton-motive force that drives ATP synthesis. The proton-pumping stoichiometry of complex I (i.e. the number of protons pumped for each two electrons transferred) underpins all mechanistic proposals. However, it remains controversial and has not been determined for any of the bacterial enzymes that are exploited as model systems for the mammalian enzyme. Here, we describe a simple method for determining the proton-pumping stoichiometry of complex I in inverted membrane vesicles under steady-state ADP-phosphorylating conditions. Our method exploits the rate of ATP synthesis, driven by oxidation of NADH or succinate with different sections of the respiratory chain engaged in catalysis as a proxy for the rate of proton translocation and determines the stoichiometry of complex I by reference to the known stoichiometries of complexes III and IV. Using vesicles prepared from mammalian mitochondria (from Bos taurus) and from the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, we show that four protons are pumped for every two electrons transferred in both cases. By confirming the four-proton stoichiometry for mammalian complex I and, for the first time, demonstrating the same value for a bacterial complex, we establish the utility of P. denitrificans complex I as a model system for the mammalian enzyme. P. denitrificans is the first system described in which mutagenesis in any complex I core subunit may be combined with quantitative proton-pumping measurements for mechanistic studies. Item Accepted version Open AccessCryo-EM structures of complex I from mouse heart mitochondria in two biochemically defined states.(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-07) Agip, Ahmed-Noor A; Blaza, James N; Bridges, Hannah R; Viscomi, Carlo; Rawson, Shaun; Muench, Stephen P; Hirst, Judy; Blaza, James N [0000-0001-5420-2116]; Muench, Stephen P [0000-0001-6869-4414]; Hirst, Judy [0000-0001-8667-6797]Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) uses the reducing potential of NADH to drive protons across the energy-transducing inner membrane and power oxidative phosphorylation in mammalian mitochondria. Recent cryo-EM analyses have produced near-complete models of all 45 subunits in the bovine, ovine and porcine complexes and have identified two states relevant to complex I in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, we describe the 3.3-Å structure of complex I from mouse heart mitochondria, a biomedically relevant model system, in the 'active' state. We reveal a nucleotide bound in subunit NDUFA10, a nucleoside kinase homolog, and define mechanistically critical elements in the mammalian enzyme. By comparisons with a 3.9-Å structure of the 'deactive' state and with known bacterial structures, we identify differences in helical geometry in the membrane domain that occur upon activation or that alter the positions of catalytically important charged residues. Our results demonstrate the capability of cryo-EM analyses to challenge and develop mechanistic models for mammalian complex I. Item Published version Open AccessTransporter gene acquisition and innovation in the evolution of Microsporidia intracellular parasites.(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-04-27) Dean, P; Sendra, KM; Williams, TA; Watson, AK; Major, P; Nakjang, S; Kozhevnikova, E; Goldberg, AV; Kunji, ERS; Hirt, RP; Embley, TM; Williams, TA [0000-0003-1072-0223]; Embley, TM [0000-0002-1484-340X]The acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer can impart entirely new biological functions and provide an important route to major evolutionary innovation. Here we have used ancient gene reconstruction and functional assays to investigate the impact of a single horizontally transferred nucleotide transporter into the common ancestor of the Microsporidia, a major radiation of intracellular parasites of animals and humans. We show that this transporter provided early microsporidians with the ability to steal host ATP and to become energy parasites. Gene duplication enabled the diversification of nucleotide transporter function to transport new substrates, including GTP and NAD+, and to evolve the proton-energized net import of nucleotides for nucleic acid biosynthesis, growth and replication. These innovations have allowed the loss of pathways for mitochondrial and cytosolic energy generation and nucleotide biosynthesis that are otherwise essential for free-living eukaryotes, resulting in the highly unusual and reduced cells and genomes of contemporary Microsporidia. Item Published version Open AccessLinear mitochondrial DNA is rapidly degraded by components of the replication machinery.(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-04-30) Peeva, Viktoriya; Blei, Daniel; Trombly, Genevieve; Corsi, Sarah; Szukszto, Maciej J; Rebelo-Guiomar, Pedro; Gammage, Payam A; Kudin, Alexei P; Becker, Christian; Altmüller, Janine; Minczuk, Michal; Zsurka, Gábor; Kunz, Wolfram S; Minczuk, Michal [0000-0001-8242-1420]; Zsurka, Gábor [0000-0002-6379-849X]; Kunz, Wolfram S [0000-0003-1113-3493]Emerging gene therapy approaches that aim to eliminate pathogenic mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rely on efficient degradation of linearized mtDNA, but the enzymatic machinery performing this task is presently unknown. Here, we show that, in cellular models of restriction endonuclease-induced mtDNA double-strand breaks, linear mtDNA is eliminated within hours by exonucleolytic activities. Inactivation of the mitochondrial 5'-3'exonuclease MGME1, elimination of the 3'-5'exonuclease activity of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase POLG by introducing the p.D274A mutation, or knockdown of the mitochondrial DNA helicase TWNK leads to severe impediment of mtDNA degradation. We do not observe similar effects when inactivating other known mitochondrial nucleases (EXOG, APEX2, ENDOG, FEN1, DNA2, MRE11, or RBBP8). Our data suggest that rapid degradation of linearized mtDNA is performed by the same machinery that is responsible for mtDNA replication, thus proposing novel roles for the participating enzymes POLG, TWNK, and MGME1. Item Accepted version Open AccessSuppression of reactive oxygen species generation in heart mitochondria from anoxic turtles: the role of complex I S-nitrosation.(The Company of Biologists, 2018-04-25) Bundgaard, Amanda; James, Andrew M; Joyce, William; Murphy, Michael P; Fago, Angela; Fago, Angela [0000-0001-7315-2628]Freshwater turtles (Trachemys scripta) are among the very few vertebrates capable of tolerating severe hypoxia and re-oxygenation without suffering from damage to the heart. As myocardial ischemia and reperfusion causes a burst of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammals, the question arises as to whether, and if so how, this ROS burst is prevented in the turtle heart. We find that heart mitochondria isolated from turtles acclimated to anoxia produce less ROS than mitochondria from normoxic turtles when consuming succinate. As succinate accumulates in the hypoxic heart and is oxidized when oxygen returns, this suggests an adaptation to lessen ROS production. Specific S-nitrosation of complex I can lower ROS in mammals and here we show that turtle complex I activity and ROS production can also be strongly depressed in vitro by S-nitrosation. We detect in vivo endogenous S-nitrosated complex I in turtle heart mitochondria, but these levels are unaffected upon anoxia acclimation. Thus, while heart mitochondria from anoxia-acclimated turtles generate less ROS and have a lower aerobic capacity than those from normoxic turtles, this is not due to decreases in complex I activity or expression levels. Interestingly, in-gel activity staining reveals that most complex I of heart mitochondria from normoxic and anoxic turtles forms stable super-complexes with other respiratory enzymes and, in contrast to mammals, these are not disrupted by dodecyl maltoside. Taken together, these results show that although S-nitrosation of complex I is a potent mechanism to prevent ROS formation upon re-oxygenation after anoxia in vitro, this is not a major cause of the suppression of ROS production by anoxic turtle heart mitochondria. Item Accepted version Open AccessLong-Term Sustained Effect of Liver-Targeted Adeno-Associated Virus Gene Therapy for Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy.(Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2018-06) Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Cabrera-Pérez, Raquel; Vila-Julià, Ferran; Viscomi, Carlo; Cámara, Yolanda; Hirano, Michio; Zeviani, Massimo; Martí, Ramon; Viscomi, Carlo [0000-0001-6050-0566]Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is caused by mutations in TYMP, the gene encoding the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP). TP dysfunction results in systemic accumulation of the noxious TP substrates thymidine and deoxyuridine. Gene therapy using either a lentiviral vector or adeno-associated vector (AAV) has proven to be a feasible strategy, as both vectors restore biochemical homeostasis in a murine model of the disease. This study shows that the effect of an AAV containing the TYMP coding sequence transcriptionally targeted to the liver persists long term in mice. Although the vector copy number was diluted and AAV-mediated liver TP activity eventually reduced or lost after 21 months at the lowest vector doses, the effect was sustained (with a negligible decrease in TP activity) and fully effective on nucleoside homeostasis for at least 21 months at a dose of 2 × 1012 vg/kg. Macroscopic visual inspection of the animals' organs at completion of the study showed no adverse effects associated with the treatment. These results further support the feasibility of gene therapy for MNGIE. Item Open AccessSuperoxide dismutating molecules rescue the toxic effects of PINK1 and parkin loss.(Oxford University Press (OUP), 2018-05-01) Biosa, Alice; Sanchez-Martinez, Alvaro; Filograna, Roberta; Terriente-Felix, Ana; Alam, Sarah M; Beltramini, Mariano; Bubacco, Luigi; Bisaglia, Marco; Whitworth, Alexander J; Whitworth, Alex [0000-0002-1154-6629]Reactive oxygen species exert important functions in regulating several cellular signalling pathways. However, an excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species can perturb the redox homeostasis leading to oxidative stress, a condition which has been associated to many neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, alterations in the redox state of cells and mitochondrial homeostasis are established hallmarks in both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease cases. PINK1 and Parkin are two genes which account for a large fraction of autosomal recessive early-onset forms of Parkinson's disease and are now firmly associated to both mitochondria and redox homeostasis. In this study we explored the hypothesis that superoxide anions participate in the generation of the Parkin and PINK1 associated phenotypic effect by testing the capacity of endogenous and exogenous superoxide dismutating molecules to rescue the toxic effects induced by loss of PINK1 or Parkin, in both cellular and fly models. Our results demonstrate the positive effect of an increased level of superoxide dismutase proteins on the pathological phenotypes, both in vitro and in vivo. A more pronounced effectiveness for mitochondrial SOD2 activity points to the superoxide radicals generated in the mitochondrial matrix as the prime suspect in the definition of the observed phenotypes. Moreover, we also demonstrate the efficacy of a SOD-mimetic compound, M40403, to partially ameliorate PINK1/Parkin phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. These results support the further exploration of SOD-mimetic compounds as a therapeutic strategy against Parkinson's disease. Item Open AccessControl of programmed cell death during zebrafish embryonic developmentPopgeorgiev, Nikolay; Bonneau, Benjamin; Prudent, Julien; Gillet, Germain; Prudent, Julien [0000-0003-3821-6088]Programmed cell death (PCD) is a conserved cellular process, which is essential during embryonic development, morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis. PCD participates in the elimination of unwanted or potentially harmful cells, and contributes in this way to the precise shaping of the developing embryo. In this review the current knowledge related to the role of PCD during zebrafish development was described and an overview was provided about the main actors that induce, control and execute the apoptosis pathways during zebrafish development. Finally, we point out some important issues regarding the regulation of apoptosis during the early stages of zebrafish development. Item Published version Open AccessMitochondrial oxidative stress causes insulin resistance without disrupting oxidative phosphorylation.(Elsevier BV, 2018-05-11) Fazakerley, Daniel J; Minard, Annabel Y; Krycer, James R; Thomas, Kristen C; Stöckli, Jacqueline; Harney, Dylan J; Burchfield, James G; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Caldwell, Stuart T; Hartley, Richard C; Stocker, Roland; Murphy, Michael P; James, David E; Fazakerley, Daniel [0000-0001-8241-2903]; Murphy, Mike [0000-0003-1115-9618]Mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, or both have been implicated in insulin resistance. However, disentangling the individual roles of these processes in insulin resistance has been difficult because they often occur in tandem, and tools that selectively increase oxidant production without impairing mitochondrial respiration have been lacking. Using the dimer/monomer status of peroxiredoxin isoforms as an indicator of compartmental hydrogen peroxide burden, we provide evidence that oxidative stress is localized to mitochondria in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipose tissue from mice. To dissociate oxidative stress from impaired oxidative phosphorylation and study whether mitochondrial oxidative stress per se can cause insulin resistance, we used mitochondria-targeted paraquat (MitoPQ) to generate superoxide within mitochondria without directly disrupting the respiratory chain. At ≤10 μm, MitoPQ specifically increased mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide without altering mitochondrial respiration in intact cells. Under these conditions, MitoPQ impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane in both adipocytes and myotubes. MitoPQ recapitulated many features of insulin resistance found in other experimental models, including increased oxidants in mitochondria but not cytosol; a more profound effect on glucose transport than on other insulin-regulated processes, such as protein synthesis and lipolysis; an absence of overt defects in insulin signaling; and defective insulin- but not AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-regulated GLUT4 translocation. We conclude that elevated mitochondrial oxidants rapidly impair insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation and significantly contribute to insulin resistance and that MitoPQ is an ideal tool for studying the link between mitochondrial oxidative stress and regulated GLUT4 trafficking. Item Accepted version Open AccessTTC19 Plays a Husbandry Role on UQCRFS1 Turnover in the Biogenesis of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complex III.(Elsevier BV, 2017-07-06) Bottani, Emanuela; Cerutti, Raffaele; Harbour, Michael E; Ravaglia, Sabrina; Dogan, Sukru Anil; Giordano, Carla; Fearnley, Ian M; D'Amati, Giulia; Viscomi, Carlo; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Zeviani, Massimo; Viscomi, Carlo [0000-0001-6050-0566]Loss-of-function mutations in TTC19 (tetra-tricopeptide repeat domain 19) have been associated with severe neurological phenotypes and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III deficiency. We previously demonstrated the mitochondrial localization of TTC19 and its link with complex III biogenesis. Here we provide detailed insight into the mechanistic role of TTC19, by investigating a Ttc19?/? mouse model that shows progressive neurological and metabolic decline, decreased complex III activity, and increased production of reactive oxygen species. By using both the Ttc19?/? mouse model and a range of human cell lines, we demonstrate that TTC19 binds to the fully assembled complex III dimer, i.e., after the incorporation of the iron-sulfur Rieske protein (UQCRFS1). The in situ maturation of UQCRFS1 produces N-terminal polypeptides, which remain bound to holocomplex III. We show that, in normal conditions, these UQCRFS1 fragments are rapidly removed, but when TTC19 is absent they accumulate within complex III, causing its structural and functional impairment. Item Accepted version Open AccessAn inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation exploits cancer vulnerability.(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-07) Molina, Jennifer R; Sun, Yuting; Protopopova, Marina; Gera, Sonal; Bandi, Madhavi; Bristow, Christopher; McAfoos, Timothy; Morlacchi, Pietro; Ackroyd, Jeffrey; Agip, Ahmed-Noor A; Al-Atrash, Gheath; Asara, John; Bardenhagen, Jennifer; Carrillo, Caroline C; Carroll, Christopher; Chang, Edward; Ciurea, Stefan; Cross, Jason B; Czako, Barbara; Deem, Angela; Daver, Naval; de Groot, John Frederick; Dong, Jian-Wen; Feng, Ningping; Gao, Guang; Gay, Jason; Do, Mary Geck; Greer, Jennifer; Giuliani, Virginia; Han, Jing; Han, Lina; Henry, Verlene K; Hirst, Judy; Huang, Sha; Jiang, Yongying; Kang, Zhijun; Khor, Tin; Konoplev, Sergej; Lin, Yu-Hsi; Liu, Gang; Lodi, Alessia; Lofton, Timothy; Ma, Helen; Mahendra, Mikhila; Matre, Polina; Mullinax, Robert; Peoples, Michael; Petrocchi, Alessia; Rodriguez-Canale, Jaime; Serreli, Riccardo; Shi, Thomas; Smith, Melinda; Tabe, Yoko; Theroff, Jay; Tiziani, Stefano; Xu, Quanyun; Zhang, Qi; Muller, Florian; DePinho, Ronald A; Toniatti, Carlo; Draetta, Giulio F; Heffernan, Timothy P; Konopleva, Marina; Jones, Philip; Di Francesco, M Emilia; Marszalek, Joseph R; Ackroyd, Jeffrey [0000-0003-3796-4447]; Lin, Yu-Hsi [0000-0001-5763-1530]; Muller, Florian [0000-0001-7568-2948]; Draetta, Giulio F [0000-0001-5225-9610]Metabolic reprograming is an emerging hallmark of tumor biology and an actively pursued opportunity in discovery of oncology drugs. Extensive efforts have focused on therapeutic targeting of glycolysis, whereas drugging mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) has remained largely unexplored, partly owing to an incomplete understanding of tumor contexts in which OXPHOS is essential. Here, we report the discovery of IACS-010759, a clinical-grade small-molecule inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Treatment with IACS-010759 robustly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in models of brain cancer and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reliant on OXPHOS, likely owing to a combination of energy depletion and reduced aspartate production that leads to impaired nucleotide biosynthesis. In models of brain cancer and AML, tumor growth was potently inhibited in vivo following IACS-010759 treatment at well-tolerated doses. IACS-010759 is currently being evaluated in phase 1 clinical trials in relapsed/refractory AML and solid tumors. Item Published version Open AccessSURF1 knockout cloned pigs: early onset of a severe lethal phenotype(Elsevier, 2018-06-01) Viscomi, CF; Qualdalti, Corinne; Brunetti, Dario; Cerutti, Raffaele; Johnson, Mark; Bottani, Emanuela; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Robinson, Alan; Zeviani, Massimo; Viscomi, Carlo [0000-0001-6050-0566]; Robinson, Alan [0000-0001-9943-0059]Leigh syndrome (LS) associated with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is an early onset, fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy, leading to multiple neurological failure and eventually death, usually in the first decade of life. Mutations in SURF1, a nuclear gene encoding a mitochondrial protein involved in COX assembly, are among the most common causes of LS. LSSURF1 patients display severe, isolated COX deficiency in all tissues, including cultured fibroblasts and skeletal muscle. Recombinant, constitutive SURF1−/− mice show diffuse COX deficiency, but fail to recapitulate the severity of the human clinical phenotype. Pigs are an attractive alternative model for human diseases, because of their size, as well as metabolic, physiological and genetic similarity to humans. Here, we determined the complete sequence of the swine SURF1 gene, disrupted it in pig primary fibroblast cell lines using both TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing systems, before finally generating SURF1−/− and SURF1−/+ pigs by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT). SURF1−/− pigs were characterized by failure to thrive, muscle weakness and highly reduced life span with elevated perinatal mortality, compared to heterozygous SURF1−/+ and wild type littermates. Surprisingly, no obvious COX deficiency was detected in SURF1−/− tissues, although histochemical analysis revealed the presence of COX deficiency in jejunum villi and total mRNA sequencing (RNAseq) showed that several COX subunit-encoding genes were significantly down-regulated in SURF1−/− skeletal muscles. In addition, neuropathological findings, indicated a delay in central nervous system development of newborn SURF1−/− piglets. Our results suggest a broader role of sSURF1 in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Item Published version Open AccessLifelong Reduction in Complex IV Induces Tissue Specific Metabolic Effects But Does Not Reduce Lifespan or Healthspan in Mice(Wiley-Blackwell, 2018-04-25) Viscomi, CF; Viscomi, Carlo [0000-0001-6050-0566]Loss of SURF1, a Complex IV assembly protein, was reported to increase lifespan in mice despite dramatically lower cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity. Consistent with this, our previous studies found advantageous changes in metabolism (reduced adiposity, increased insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial biogenesis) in Surf1-/- mice. The lack of deleterious phenotypes in Surf1-/- mice is contrary to the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to aging. We found only a modest (non-significant) extension of lifespan (7% median, 16% maximum) and no change in healthspan indices in Surf1-/- versus Surf1+/+ mice despite substantial decreases in COX activity (22-87% across tissues). Dietary restriction (DR) increased median lifespan in both Surf1+/+ and Surf1-/- mice (36 and 19%, respectively). We measured gene expression, metabolites and targeted expression of key metabolic proteins in adipose tissue, liver and brain in Surf1+/+ and Surf1-/- mice. Gene expression was differentially regulated in a tissue specific manner. Many proteins and metabolites are downregulated in Surf1-/- adipose tissue and reversed by DR, while in brain most metabolites that changed were elevated in Surf1-/- mice. Finally, mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt)-associated proteins were not uniformly altered by age or genotype, suggesting the UPRmt is not a key player in aging or in response to reduced COX activity. While the changes in gene expression and metabolism may represent compensatory responses to mitochondrial stress, the important outcome of this study is that lifespan and healthspan are not compromised in Surf1-/- mice, suggesting that not all mitochondrial deficiencies are a critical determinant of lifespan. Item Published version Open AccessTreating the placenta to prevent adverse effects of gestational hypoxia on fetal brain development.(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2017-08-22) Phillips, Tom J; Scott, Hannah; Menassa, David A; Bignell, Ashleigh L; Sood, Aman; Morton, Jude S; Akagi, Takami; Azuma, Koki; Rogers, Mark F; Gilmore, Catherine E; Inman, Gareth J; Grant, Simon; Chung, Yealin; Aljunaidy, Mais M; Cooke, Christy-Lynn; Steinkraus, Bruno R; Pocklington, Andrew; Logan, Angela; Collett, Gavin P; Kemp, Helena; Holmans, Peter A; Murphy, Michael P; Fulga, Tudor A; Coney, Andrew M; Akashi, Mitsuru; Davidge, Sandra T; Case, C Patrick; Scott, Hannah [0000-0002-2497-549X]; Pocklington, Andrew [0000-0002-2137-0452]Some neuropsychiatric disease, including schizophrenia, may originate during prenatal development, following periods of gestational hypoxia and placental oxidative stress. Here we investigated if gestational hypoxia promotes damaging secretions from the placenta that affect fetal development and whether a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ might prevent this. Gestational hypoxia caused low birth-weight and changes in young adult offspring brain, mimicking those in human neuropsychiatric disease. Exposure of cultured neurons to fetal plasma or to secretions from the placenta or from model trophoblast barriers that had been exposed to altered oxygenation caused similar morphological changes. The secretions and plasma contained altered microRNAs whose targets were linked with changes in gene expression in the fetal brain and with human schizophrenia loci. Molecular and morphological changes in vivo and in vitro were prevented by a single dose of MitoQ bound to nanoparticles, which were shown to localise and prevent oxidative stress in the placenta but not in the fetus. We suggest the possibility of developing preventative treatments that target the placenta and not the fetus to reduce risk of psychiatric disease in later life. Item Accepted version Open AccessTreatment with antioxidants ameliorates oxidative damage in a mouse model of propionic acidemia.(Elsevier BV, 2017-09) Rivera-Barahona, Ana; Alonso-Barroso, Esmeralda; Pérez, Belén; Murphy, Michael P; Richard, Eva; Desviat, Lourdes R; Murphy, Mike [0000-0003-1115-9618]Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of propionic acidemia (PA), a life threatening disease caused by the deficiency of propionyl CoA-carboxylase, in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, odd-number chain fatty acids and cholesterol. Patients develop multisystemic complications including seizures, extrapyramidal symptoms, basal ganglia deterioration, pancreatitis and cardiomyopathy. The accumulation of toxic metabolites results in mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage, all of which have been documented in patients' samples and in a hypomorphic mouse model. Here we set out to investigate whether treatment with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ, or with the natural polyphenol resveratrol, which is reported to have antioxidant and mitochondrial activation properties, could ameliorate the altered redox status and its functional consequences in the PA mouse model. The results show that oral treatment with MitoQ or resveratrol decreases lipid peroxidation and the expression levels of DNA repair enzyme OGG1 in PA mouse liver, as well as inducing tissue-specific changes in the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Notably, treatment decreased the cardiac hypertrophy marker BNP that is found upregulated in the PA mouse heart. Overall, the results provide in vivo evidence to justify more in depth investigations of antioxidants as adjuvant therapy in PA. Item Published version Open AccessTargeted mitochondrial therapy using MitoQ shows equivalent renoprotection to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition but no combined synergy in diabetes.(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2017-11-09) Ward, Micheal S; Flemming, Nicole B; Gallo, Linda A; Fotheringham, Amelia K; McCarthy, Domenica A; Zhuang, Aowen; Tang, Peter H; Borg, Danielle J; Shaw, Hannah; Harvie, Benjamin; Briskey, David R; Roberts, Llion A; Plan, Manuel R; Murphy, Michael P; Hodson, Mark P; Forbes, Josephine M; Gallo, Linda A [0000-0002-0471-8517]; Roberts, Llion A [0000-0002-2284-1033]; Hodson, Mark P [0000-0002-5436-1886]; Forbes, Josephine M [0000-0002-5595-8174]Mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological mediator of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Our objective was to test the mitochondrially targeted agent, MitoQ, alone and in combination with first line therapy for DKD. Intervention therapies (i) vehicle (D); (ii) MitoQ (DMitoQ;0.6 mg/kg/day); (iii) Ramipril (DRam;3 mg/kg/day) or (iv) combination (DCoAd) were administered to male diabetic db/db mice for 12 weeks (n = 11-13/group). Non-diabetic (C) db/m mice were followed concurrently. No therapy altered glycaemic control or body weight. By the study end, both monotherapies improved renal function, decreasing glomerular hyperfiltration and albuminuria. All therapies prevented tubulointerstitial collagen deposition, but glomerular mesangial expansion was unaffected. Renal cortical concentrations of ATP, ADP, AMP, cAMP, creatinine phosphate and ATP:AMP ratio were increased by diabetes and mostly decreased with therapy. A higher creatine phosphate:ATP ratio in diabetic kidney cortices, suggested a decrease in ATP consumption. Diabetes elevated glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and oxidised (NAD+ and NADP+) and reduced (NADH) nicotinamide dinucleotides, which therapy decreased generally. Diabetes increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption (OCR) at complex II-IV. MitoQ further increased OCR but decreased ATP, suggesting mitochondrial uncoupling as its mechanism of action. MitoQ showed renoprotection equivalent to ramipril but no synergistic benefits of combining these agents were shown. Item Published version Open AccessMitochondria-targeted antioxidant therapy with MitoQ ameliorates aortic stiffening in old mice.(American Physiological Society, 2018-05-01) Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A; Battson, Micah L; Cuevas, Lauren M; Eng, Jason S; Murphy, Michael P; Seals, Douglas R; Murphy, Mike [0000-0003-1115-9618]Aortic stiffening is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunction, and other chronic disorders of aging. Mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species are a key source of arterial oxidative stress, which may contribute to arterial stiffening by promoting adverse structural changes-including collagen overabundance and elastin degradation-and enhancing inflammation, but the potential for mitochondria-targeted therapeutic strategies to ameliorate aortic stiffening with primary aging is unknown. We assessed aortic stiffness [pulse-wave velocity (aPWV)], ex vivo aortic intrinsic mechanical properties [elastic modulus (EM) of collagen and elastin regions], and aortic protein expression in young (~6 mo) and old (~27 mo) male C57BL/6 mice consuming normal drinking water (YC and OC) or water containing mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ (250 µM; YMQ and OMQ) for 4 wk. Both baseline and postintervention aPWV values were higher in OC vs. YC (post: 482 ± 21 vs. 420 ± 5 cm/s, P < 0.05). MitoQ had no effect in young mice but decreased aPWV in old mice (OMQ, 426 ± 20, P < 0.05 vs. OC). MitoQ did not affect age-associated increases in aortic collagen-region EM, collagen expression, or proinflammatory cytokine expression, but partially attenuated age-associated decreases in elastin region EM and elastin expression. Our results demonstrate that MitoQ reverses in vivo aortic stiffness in old mice and suggest that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may represent a novel, promising therapeutic strategy for decreasing aortic stiffness with primary aging and, possibly, age-related clinical disorders in humans. The destiffening effects of MitoQ treatment may be at least partially mediated by attenuation/reversal of age-related aortic elastin degradation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that 4 wk of treatment with the mitochondria-specific antioxidant MitoQ in mice completely reverses the age-associated elevation in aortic stiffness, assessed as aortic pulse-wave velocity. The destiffening effects of MitoQ treatment may be at least partially mediated by attenuation of age-related aortic elastin degradation. Our results suggest that mitochondria-targeted therapeutic strategies may hold promise for decreasing arterial stiffening with aging in humans, possibly decreasing the risk of many chronic age-related clinical disorders. Item Accepted version Open AccessImpact of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.(European Respiratory Society (ERS), 2018-02-01) Pak, Oleg; Scheibe, Susan; Esfandiary, Azadeh; Gierhardt, Mareike; Sydykov, Akylbek; Logan, Angela; Fysikopoulos, Athanasios; Veit, Florian; Hecker, Matthias; Kroschel, Florian; Quanz, Karin; Erb, Alexandra; Schäfer, Katharina; Fassbinder, Mirja; Alebrahimdehkordi, Nasim; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Brandes, Ralf P; Seeger, Werner; Murphy, Michael P; Weissmann, Norbert; Sommer, Natascha; Sydykov, Akylbek [0000-0002-8122-7033]Increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide have been suggested to mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) remodelling.We determined ROS in acute, chronic hypoxia and investigated the effect of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ under these conditions.The effect of MitoQ or its inactive carrier substance, decyltriphenylphosphonium (TPP+), on acute HPV (1% O2 for 10 minutes) was investigated in isolated blood-free perfused mouse lungs. Mice exposed for 4 weeks to chronic hypoxia (10% O2) or after banding of the main pulmonary artery (PAB) were treated with MitoQ or TPP+ (50 mg/kg/day).Total cellular superoxide and mitochondrial ROS levels were increased in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), but decreased in pulmonary fibroblasts in acute hypoxia. MitoQ significantly inhibited HPV and acute hypoxia-induced rise in superoxide concentration. ROS was decreased in PASMC, while it increased in the RV after chronic hypoxia. Correspondingly, MitoQ did not affect the development of chronic hypoxia-induced PH, but attenuated RV remodelling after chronic hypoxia as well as after PAB.Increased mitochondrial ROS of PASMC mediate acute HPV, but not chronic hypoxia-induced PH. MitoQ may be beneficial under conditions of exaggerated acute HPV. Item Published version Open AccessMitoQ improves mitochondrial dysfunction in heart failure induced by pressure overload.(Elsevier BV, 2018-03) Ribeiro Junior, Rogério Faustino; Dabkowski, Erinne Rose; Shekar, Kadambari Chandra; O Connell, Kelly A; Hecker, Peter A; Murphy, Michael P; Murphy, Mike [0000-0003-1115-9618]Heart failure remains a major public-health problem with an increase in the number of patients worsening from this disease. Despite current medical therapy, the condition still has a poor prognosis. Heart failure is complex but mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be an important target to improve cardiac function directly. Our goal was to analyze the effects of MitoQ (100 µM in drinking water) on the development and progression of heart failure induced by pressure overload after 14 weeks. The main findings are that pressure overload-induced heart failure in rats decreased cardiac function in vivo that was not altered by MitoQ. However, we observed a reduction in right ventricular hypertrophy and lung congestion in heart failure animals treated with MitoQ. Heart failure also decreased total mitochondrial protein content, mitochondrial membrane potential in the intermyofibrillar mitochondria. MitoQ restored membrane potential in IFM but did not restore mitochondrial protein content. These alterations are associated with the impairment of basal and stimulated mitochondrial respiration in IFM and SSM induced by heart failure. Moreover, MitoQ restored mitochondrial respiration in heart failure induced by pressure overload. We also detected higher levels of hydrogen peroxide production in heart failure and MitoQ restored the increase in ROS production. MitoQ was also able to improve mitochondrial calcium retention capacity, mainly in the SSM whereas in the IFM we observed a small alteration. In summary, MitoQ improves mitochondrial dysfunction in heart failure induced by pressure overload, by decreasing hydrogen peroxide formation, improving mitochondrial respiration and improving mPTP opening.