Item Accepted version Open AccessThe TIPPME intervention typology for changing environments to change behaviour(Nature, 2017-07-17) Hollands, GJ; Bignardi, G; Johnston, M; Kelly, MP; Ogilvie, D; Petticrew, M; Prestwich, A; Shemilt, I; Sutton, S; Marteau, TM; Hollands, Gareth [0000-0002-0492-3924]; Kelly, Mike [0000-0002-2029-5841]; Ogilvie, David [0000-0002-0270-4672]; Sutton, Stephen [0000-0003-1610-0404]; Marteau, Theresa [0000-0003-3025-1129]Reflecting widespread interest in concepts of ‘nudging’ and ‘choice architecture’, there is increasing research and policy attention on altering aspects of the small-scale physical environment, such as portion sizes or product positioning, to change health-related behaviour at population-level. There is, however, a lack of clarity in characterising these interventions, and no reliable framework incorporating standardised definitions. This hampers both the synthesis of cumulative evidence about intervention effects, and the identification of intervention opportunities. To address this, a new tool, TIPPME (Typology of Interventions in Proximal Physical Micro-Environments) has been developed, here applied to the selection, purchase and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco. This provides a framework to reliably classify and describe, and enable more systematic design, reporting and analysis of, an important class of interventions. In doing so, it makes a distinct contribution to collective efforts to build the cumulative evidence-base for effective ways of changing behaviour across populations. Item Published version Open AccessReconceptualising public acceptability: A study of the ways people respond to policies aimed to reduce alcohol consumption.(SAGE Publications, 2016-05) Cohn, SimonThe issue of public acceptability of health policies is key if they are to have significant and lasting impact. This study, based on focus groups conducted in England, examines the ways people responded to, and made sense of, policy ideas aimed at reducing alcohol consumption. Although effective policies were supported in the abstract, specific proposals were consistently rejected because they were not thought to map onto the fundamental causes of excessive drinking, which was not attributed to alcohol itself but instead its cultural context. Rather than being influenced by the credibility of evidence, or assessed according to likely gains set against possible losses, such responses were established dynamically as people interacted with others to make sense of the topic. This has significant implications for policy-makers, suggesting that existing beliefs and knowledge need to be taken into account as potentially productive rather than obstructive resources. Item Open AccessEffects of changes in the economic environment on diet- and physical activity-related behaviours and corollary outcomes: a large-scale scoping review.(Behaviour and Health Research Unit, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, 2013) Ogilvie, DBChanging the economic environment has some potential to influence patterns of diet and physical activity and thereby improve population health and reduce inequalities. We conducted a systematic scoping review to identify and describe current evidence for the effects of either specific interventions that change prices or income, or general exposure to variations in prices or income, on diet- and physical activity-related behaviours, their proximal consequences (food, energy or nutrient intake or energy expenditure) and their more distal consequences (risk factors for non-communicable diseases). Item Open AccessAltering choice architecture to change population health behaviour: a large-scale conceptual and empirical scoping review of interventions within micro-environments.(Behaviour and Health Research Unit, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, 2013) Ogilvie, DBThere is considerable public policy interest in choice architecture, an approach that involves altering features of physical or social environments to change behaviour. To date there has been no systematic attempt to clarify the concept and definition or describe the evidence base for such interventions. We conducted a systematic scoping review of empirical evidence, and related conceptual material, to identify the effects of choice architecture interventions in micro-environments on diet-, physical activity-, alcohol- and tobacco-related behaviours.