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University of Cambridge Research Outputs (Articles and Conferences)

This collection holds the University's record of publications (journal articles and conference proceedings).


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 38301
  • ItemOpen AccessAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    Using organoids to model sex differences in the human brain
    (Elsevier BV) Pavlinek, Adam; Adhya, Dwaipayan; Tsompanidis, Alex; Warrier, Varun; Vernon, Anthony C; Lancaster, Madeline; Mill, Jonathan; Srivastava, Deepak P; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Adhya, Dwaipayan [0000-0002-8612-3508]
  • ItemOpen AccessAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    Calorimetric investigation on heat release during the disintegration process of pharmaceutical tablets.
    (Elsevier BV, 2024-06-07) Lee, Jongmin; Goodwin, Daniel J; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Nassar, Joelle; Zeitler, J Axel; Zeitler, Axel [0000-0002-4958-0582]
    The compendial USP<701> disintegration test method offers a crucial pass/fail assessment for immdiate release tablet disintegration. However, its single end-point approach provides limited insight into underlying mechanisms. This study introduces a novel calorimetric approach, aimed at providing comprehensive process profiles beyond binary outcomes. We developed a novel disintegration reaction calorimeter to monitor the heat release throughout the disintegration process and successfully obtained enthalpy change profiles of placebo tablets with various porosities. The formulation comprised microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), anhydrous lactose, croscarmellose sodium (CCS), and magnesium stearate (MgSt). An abrupt temperature rise was observed after introducing the disintegration medium to tablets, and the relationship between the heat rise time and the tablet's porosity was investigated. The calorimeter's sensitivity was sufficient to discern distinct heat changes among individual tablets, and the analysis revealed a direct correlation between the two. Higher porosity corresponded to shorter heat rise time, indicating faster disintegration rates. Additionally, the analysis identified a concurrent endothermic process alongside the anticipated exothermic phenomenon, potentially associated with the dissolution of anhydrous lactose. Since lactose is the only soluble excipient within the blend composition, the endothermic process can be attributed to the absorption of heat as lactose molecules dissolve in water. The findings from this study underscore the potential of utilising calorimetric methods to quantify the wettability of complex compounds and, ultimately, optimise tablet formulations.
  • ItemEmbargoAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    Exploring the interplay between intellectual property models and sustainability transitions: a multi-level analysis
    (ERP Environment) Tietze, Frank; Gurtoo, Anjula; Eppinger, Elizabeth; Vimalnath, Pratheeba; Jain, Akriti; Tietze, Frank [0000-0002-2899-6415]
    Research on international technology transfer and partnership agreements provides a comprehensive understanding of country-level impacts of intellectual property (IP) rights on sustainability transitions. However, firm-level studies on how firms use and share their IP to support sustainability practices remains limited. The paper disentangles the relationship between firm-level IP models and sustainability practices drawing from a cross-case analysis of 28 firms offering sustainable innovations across four sectors. Analysis of firms’ year-wise data collected from 854 documents (typically 1996-2021) and 58 in-depth interviews exploring linkage between IP models and sustainability practices of firms engaged in sustainable innovation provide six key findings (1) emphasis on safeguarding registered and unregistered IP assets among firms with sustainable innovations (2) widespread adoption of selectively open inbound IP models coupled with diverse IP sharing mechanisms (3) a preference for collaborative (joint) IP ownership among internally driven firms, contrasting with a tendency for exclusive in-licensing among those reacting to external pressures (4) a divergence in outbound IP models, with internally motivated firms favouring selectively open approaches and externally driven firms favoring closed IP models; (5) the adoption of fully open outbound IP models democratize sustainable innovation diffusion; (6) leveraging broadly open outbound IP models alongside closed or selectively open models balances widespread use with access control and achieves significant social sustainability. A framework is hence developed to guide technology-sharing policies and procedures. Thereby, the paper creates a platform for prescribing sustainable IP incentives for encouraging firms to share IP for wider diffusion of sustainable innovations.
  • ItemOpen AccessPublished version Peer-reviewed
    ‘The most original and interesting part of the design’: The attached quadrant conservatory at the dawn of the nineteenth century
    (Informa UK Limited, 2021-07-03) Tropp, Rebecca
    In Britain in the closing years of the eighteenth century, two significant shifts in glasshouse design both reflected and facilitated a decisive change in the relationship between the house and its landscape setting. The first was a profusion of glazed conservatories attached directly to the main residence of country estates, serving as both social and botanical spaces that—unlike their free-standing counterparts—were immediately accessible from adjacent polite rooms of the house. The second development of especial interest was that, although most of these conservatories were rectilinear, a number of them were designed in a quadrant shape, typically with glazing on their concave façade. Largely overlooked in scholarship to date, these two interrelated phenomena are examined in the work of leading architects of the period, with particular attention to the role of landscape gardener Humphry Repton. An investigation of possible precedents and reasons for utilising this form leads to the conclusion that, rather than being chosen primarily for horticultural reasons, the attached quadrant conservatory served above all to embody late-eighteenth-century Picturesque ideals of asymmetry, movement and imagination.
  • ItemOpen AccessAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    UrbanClassifier: A deep learning-based model for automated typology and temporal analysis of urban fabric across multiple spatial scales and viewpoints
    (Elsevier BV, 2024-07) Fang, Z; Jin, Y; Zheng, S; Zhao, L; Yang, T; Jin, Ying [0000-0003-2683-6829]
    The field of urban morphology, crucial for understanding the evolutionary trajectories of cityscapes, has traditionally depended on manual classification methods. The surge in deep learning and computer vision technologies presents an opportunity to automate and enhance urban typo-morphology studies. This research addresses three critical shortcomings in the current body of work: the neglect of urban fabric's three-dimensional qualities, the homogeneity of spatial scales in dataset creation and the dependence on a single-perspective for urban fabric classification. A novel deep learning-based model, UrbanClassifier, is introduced, trained on a substantial dataset that encapsulates the three-dimensionality of urban fabric along with morphological types and development periods. Extensive experimentation across four European cities highlights the model's ability to incorporate diverse spatial scales and viewpoints in urban fabric analysis. The UrbanClassifier exemplifies a method integrating features from various scales and perspectives, thus laying the groundwork for scalable and accessible urban typo-morphology studies, aiding practitioners in discerning the spatio-temporal evolution of urban fabric.
  • ItemOpen AccessAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    A phlogopite-bearing lithospheric mantle source for Europe's largest REE-HFSE belt: Gardar Rift, SW Greenland
    (Elsevier BV, 2024-08) Beard, Charles D; Finch, Adrian A; Borst, Anouk M; Goodenough, Kathryn M; Hutchison, William; Millar, Ian L; Andersen, Tom; Williams, Helen M; Weller, Owen M; Beard, Charles D [0000-0001-6221-6868]; Finch, Adrian A [0000-0002-3689-1517]; Hutchison, William [0000-0002-5456-3277]
    Alkaline-silicate complexes host some of the world's largest resources of rare-earth elements and high-field-strength elements (REE & HFSE) and represent the most fractionated magmatic systems on our planet. Geochemical evidence indicates that they are mantle melts, but while various studies highlight a role for lithospheric mantle, we do not know the precise origin of their contained REE and HFSE, and whether enrichment of the mantle source for these magmas can be attributed to specific geodynamic processes or events.
  • ItemEmbargoAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    Priorities and KPIs in the evaluation of digital building permit processes from different stakeholder perspectives
    Fauth, Judith; Bloch, Tanya; Soibelman, Lucio; Brilakis, Ioannis
    This study explores the complexities of building permitting processes and the prioritization of key performance indicators (KPIs) from diverse stakeholder perspectives across countries. An initial list of KPIs was developed from in-depth interviews with field professionals. To validate this list and capture various stakeholder views, a quantitative survey was conducted among industry professionals, public authorities, and policymakers. Results reveal significant disparities in priorities, both internationally and within countries. The findings emphasize the need to tailor solutions to specific contexts and stakeholder requirements, rejecting a one-size-fits-all approach. By moving away from the notion of a mythical best practice, the research advocates for a pragmatic approach that acknowledges the multifaceted nature of building permitting processes. This is essential for addressing the evolving needs of stakeholders globally, contributing to a nuanced understanding of building permitting complexity and the importance of accommodating diverse perspectives in developing effective solutions.
  • ItemOpen AccessPublished version Peer-reviewed
    Pectin methylesterification state and cell wall mechanical properties contribute to neighbor proximity-induced hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis.
    (Wiley, 2024-04) Sénéchal, Fabien; Robinson, Sarah; Van Schaik, Evert; Trévisan, Martine; Saxena, Prashant; Reinhardt, Didier; Fankhauser, Christian; Sénéchal, Fabien [0000-0002-4145-7205]; Robinson, Sarah [0000-0001-7643-1059]; Van Schaik, Evert [0009-0008-9475-0393]; Trévisan, Martine [0000-0002-6610-6954]; Saxena, Prashant [0000-0001-5071-726X]; Reinhardt, Didier [0000-0003-3495-6783]; Fankhauser, Christian [0000-0003-4719-5901]
    Plants growing with neighbors compete for light and consequently increase the growth of their vegetative organs to enhance access to sunlight. This response, called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS), involves photoreceptors such as phytochromes as well as phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs), which regulate the expression of growth-mediating genes. Numerous cell wall-related genes belong to the putative targets of PIFs, and the importance of cell wall modifications for enabling growth was extensively shown in developmental models such as dark-grown hypocotyl. However, the contribution of the cell wall in the growth of de-etiolated seedlings regulated by shade cues remains poorly established. Through analyses of mechanical and biochemical properties of the cell wall coupled with transcriptomic analysis of cell wall-related genes from previously published data, we provide evidence suggesting that cell wall modifications are important for neighbor proximity-induced elongation. Further analysis using loss-of-function mutants impaired in the synthesis and remodeling of the main cell wall polymers corroborated this. We focused on the cgr2cgr3 double mutant that is defective in methylesterification of homogalacturonan (HG)-type pectins. By following hypocotyl growth kinetically and spatially and analyzing the mechanical and biochemical properties of cell walls, we found that methylesterification of HG-type pectins was required to enable global cell wall modifications underlying neighbor proximity-induced hypocotyl growth. Collectively, our work suggests that plant competition for light induces changes in the expression of numerous cell wall genes to enable modifications in biochemical and mechanical properties of cell walls that contribute to neighbor proximity-induced growth.
  • ItemOpen AccessAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    Using rest-frame optical and NIR data from the RAISIN survey to explore the redshift evolution of dust laws in SN Ia host galaxies
    (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2024-05-06) Thorp, S; Mandel, KS; Jones, DO; Kirshner, RP; Challis, PM; Thorp, S [0009-0005-6323-0457]; Mandel, KS [0000-0001-9846-4417]
    ABSTRACT We use rest-frame optical and near-infrared (NIR) observations of 42 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the Carnegie Supernova Project at low-z and 37 from the RAISIN (SNIA in the IR) Survey at high-z to investigate correlations between SN Ia host galaxy dust, host mass, and redshift. This is the first time the SN Ia host galaxy dust extinction law at high-z has been estimated using combined optical and rest-frame NIR data (YJ band). We use the BayeSN hierarchical model to leverage the data’s wide rest-frame wavelength range (extending to ∼1.0–1.2 μm for the RAISIN sample at 0.2 ≲ z ≲ 0.6). By contrasting the RAISIN and Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) data, we constrain the population distributions of the host dust RV parameter for both redshift ranges. We place a limit on the difference in population mean RV between RAISIN and CSP of −1.16 &lt; Δμ(RV) &lt; 1.38 with 95 per cent posterior probability. For RAISIN we estimate μ(RV) = 2.58 ± 0.57, and constrain the population standard deviation to σ(RV) &lt; 0.90 [2.42] at the 68 [95] per cent level. Given that we are only able to constrain the size of the low- to high-z shift in μ(RV) to ≲1.4 – which could still propagate to a substantial bias in the equation-of-state parameter w – these and other recent results motivate continued effort to obtain rest-frame NIR data at low- and high-redshifts (e.g. using the Roman Space Telescope).
  • ItemOpen AccessPublished version Peer-reviewed
    Preferences on Governance Models for Mental Health Data: Qualitative Study With Young People.
    (JMIR Publications Inc., 2024-04-23) Carey, Emma Grace; Adeyemi, Faith Oluwasemilore; Neelakantan, Lakshmi; Fernandes, Blossom; Fazel, Mina; Ford, Tamsin; MindKind Consortium; Burn, Anne-Marie; Carey, Emma Grace [0000-0002-2294-7989]; Adeyemi, Faith Oluwasemilore [0009-0004-3729-0387]; Neelakantan, Lakshmi [0000-0002-3913-3447]; Fernandes, Blossom [0000-0003-2443-4391]; Fazel, Mina [0000-0001-9342-2365]; Ford, Tamsin [0000-0001-5295-4904]; Burn, Anne-Marie [0000-0002-0637-2118]
    BACKGROUND: Improving access to mental health data to accelerate research and improve mental health outcomes is a potentially achievable goal given the substantial data that can now be collected from mobile devices. Smartphones can provide a useful mechanism for collecting mental health data from young people, especially as their use is relatively ubiquitous in high-resource settings such as the United Kingdom and they have a high capacity to collect active and passive data. This raises the interesting opportunity to establish a large bank of mental health data from young people that could be accessed by researchers worldwide, but it is important to clarify how to ensure that this is done in an appropriate manner aligned with the values of young people. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we discussed the preferences of young people in the United Kingdom regarding the governance, sharing, and use of their mental health data with the establishment of a global data bank in mind. We aimed to determine whether young people want and feel safe to share their mental health data; if so, with whom; and their preferences in doing so. METHODS: Young people (N=46) were provided with 2 modules of educational material about data governance models and background in scientific research. We then conducted 2-hour web-based group sessions using a deliberative democracy methodology to reach a consensus where possible. Findings were analyzed using the framework method. RESULTS: Young people were generally enthusiastic about contributing data to mental health research. They believed that broader availability of mental health data could be used to discover what improves or worsens mental health and develop new services to support young people. However, this enthusiasm came with many concerns and caveats, including distributed control of access to ensure appropriate use, distributed power, and data management that included diverse representation and sufficient ethical training for applicants and data managers. CONCLUSIONS: Although it is feasible to use smartphones to collect mental health data from young people in the United Kingdom, it is essential to carefully consider the parameters of such a data bank. Addressing and embedding young people's preferences, including the need for robust procedures regarding how their data are managed, stored, and accessed, will set a solid foundation for establishing any global data bank.
  • ItemOpen AccessAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    SIDE-real: Supernova Ia Dust Extinction with truncated marginal neural ratio estimation applied to real data
    (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2024-05-06) Karchev, K; Grayling, M; Boyd, BM; Trotta, R; Mandel, KS; Weniger, C; Karchev, K [0000-0001-9344-736X]; Grayling, M [0000-0002-6741-983X]; Trotta, R [0000-0002-3415-0707]; Mandel, KS [0000-0001-9846-4417]
    ABSTRACT We present the first fully simulation-based hierarchical analysis of the light curves of a population of low-redshift type Ia supernovæ (SNæ Ia). Our hardware-accelerated forward model, released in the Python package slicsim, includes stochastic variations of each SN’s spectral flux distribution (based on the pre-trained BayeSN model), extinction from dust in the host and in the Milky Way, redshift, and realistic instrumental noise. By utilizing truncated marginal neural ratio estimation (TMNRE), a neural network-enabled simulation-based inference technique, we implicitly marginalize over 4000 latent variables (for a set of ≈100 SNæ Ia) to efficiently infer SN Ia absolute magnitudes and host-galaxy dust properties at the population level while also constraining the parameters of individual objects. Amortization of the inference procedure allows us to obtain coverage guarantees for our results through Bayesian validation and frequentist calibration. Furthermore, we show a detailed comparison to full likelihood-based inference, implemented through Hamiltonian Monte Carlo, on simulated data and then apply TMNRE to the light curves of 86 SNæ Ia from the Carnegie Supernova Project, deriving marginal posteriors in excellent agreement with previous work. Given its ability to accommodate arbitrarily complex extensions to the forward model, e.g. different populations based on host properties, redshift evolution, complicated photometric redshift estimates, selection effects, and non-Ia contamination, without significant modifications to the inference procedure, TMNRE has the potential to become the tool of choice for cosmological parameter inference from future, large SN Ia samples.
  • ItemOpen AccessPublished version Peer-reviewed
    Stuck in 'the field': why applied epidemiology needs to go home.
    (BMJ, 2024-04-08) Jephcott, Freya L; Jephcott, Freya L [0000-0003-3256-0099]
    Between December 2010 and January 2011, 16 children presented to a mission hospital, in what at the time was, the Brong Ahafo Region (BAR) of Ghana, with unusual forms of seizure and paralysis. Initial testing suggested that the cause was B virus, a zoonotic monkey-borne virus not previously seen in Africa. These unexpected and concerning results spurred national public health authorities to deploy a field epidemiology team from the capital. Although short-lived, the findings from their investigation implicated a local monkey population occupying a forest belt which stretched along all of the affected communities. Newly collected samples were sent to a foreign reference laboratory for confirmatory testing, but no results were reported back. In the interim, several transnational research coalitions were formed to investigate the outbreak further. One did manage to obtain some confirmatory testing and the results suggested that B virus was not the cause of the outbreak. This prompted the remaining research coalitions to consider other potential causative agents and animal hosts. Over time it became clear, however, that the reports of a monkey-filled forest were also incorrect and that the clinical picture had not supported an infectious aetiology as definitely as first thought.
  • ItemOpen AccessAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    An interactive approach to the notion of chemical substance and the case of water
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC) Riesmeier, Marabel; Riesmeier, Marabel [0000-0002-1378-4890]
    AbstractFrom organic synthesis to quantum chemical calculation, chemists interact with chemical substances in a wide variety of ways. But what even is a chemical substance? My aim is to propose a notion of chemical substance that is consistent with the way in which chemical substances are individuated in chemistry, addressing gaps in previous conceptions of chemical substance. Water is employed as a case study to develop the account, not only because it is a familiar example of a chemical substance, but also because its structural peculiarities make it an ideal test case for drawing out potential issues and limitations. Examining four distinct views of chemical substance—the microstructural, thermodynamic, purification, and a functional/relational account—I conclude that each has considerable drawbacks when used as a standalone concept. However, these accounts are not rendered obsolete, but are combined into a semi-pluralist conceptual patchwork. My interactive account of chemical substance is consistent with existing substance descriptions and chemical practice.
  • ItemOpen AccessPublished version Peer-reviewed
    What is the ideal time to begin tapering opioid agonist treatment? A protocol for a retrospective population-based comparative effectiveness study in British Columbia, Canada.
    (BMJ, 2024-04-29) Yan, Ruyu; Kurz, Megan; Guerra-Alejos, B Carolina; Min, Jeong Eun; Bach, Paxton; Greenland, Sander; Gustafson, Paul; Karim, Ehsan; Korthuis, P Todd; Loughin, Tom; McCandless, Lawrence; Platt, Robert W; Schnepel, Kevin; Seaman, Shaun; Socías, M Eugenia; Wood, Evan; Xie, Hui; Nosyk, Bohdan; Gustafson, Paul [0000-0002-2375-5006]; Seaman, Shaun [0000-0003-3726-5937]; Nosyk, Bohdan [0000-0003-2513-3718]
    INTRODUCTION: Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) tapering involves a gradual reduction in daily medication dose to ultimately reach a state of opioid abstinence. Due to the high risk of relapse and overdose after tapering, this practice is not recommended by clinical guidelines, however, clients may still request to taper off medication. The ideal time to initiate an OAT taper is not known. However, ethically, taper plans should acknowledge clients' preferences and autonomy but apply principles of shared informed decision-making regarding safety and efficacy. Linked population-level data capturing real-world tapering practices provide a valuable opportunity to improve existing evidence on when to contemplate starting an OAT taper. Our objective is to determine the comparative effectiveness of alternative times from OAT initiation at which a taper can be initiated, with a primary outcome of taper completion, as observed in clinical practice in British Columbia (BC), Canada. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We propose a population-level retrospective observational study with a linkage of eight provincial health administrative databases in BC, Canada (01 January 2010 to 17 March 2020). Our primary outcomes include taper completion and all-cause mortality during treatment. We propose a 'per-protocol' target trial to compare different durations to taper initiation on the likelihood of taper completion. A range of sensitivity analyses will be used to assess the heterogeneity and robustness of the results including assessment of effectiveness and safety. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol, cohort creation and analysis plan have been classified and approved as a quality improvement initiative by Providence Health Care Research Ethics Board and the Simon Fraser University Office of Research Ethics. Results will be disseminated to local advocacy groups and decision-makers, national and international clinical guideline developers, presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals electronically and in print.
  • ItemEmbargoAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    The Case for a Scottish Clarity Act
    (Wiley) Coulter, Steph
    The recent political difficulties faced by the Scottish National Party have made the prospect of a future Scottish independence referendum less salient, in both Westminster and Holyrood. However, whilst the short-term prospects for the independence movement look challenging, the long-term question of Scotland’s future within the UK remains an important area of analysis for constitutional policymakers and scholars alike. This article seeks to add to the debate on the future of the UK’s territorial constitution by arguing for the passage of a ‘Scottish Clarity Act’ by the UK government, which would outline the rules about when and how a future Scottish independence referendum be conducted. Using the Canadian Clarity Act as an international example of the constitutionalising of secession, it argues that there are numerous benefits associated with providing greater clarity on Scotland’s constitutional future, including the dampening of polarisation, the mitigation of constitutional crisis, the improvement of governance and the bolstering of democracy in the UK.
  • ItemOpen AccessPublished version Peer-reviewed
    Clonal hematopoiesis in people with advanced HIV and associated inflammatory syndromes.
    (American Society for Clinical Investigation, 2024-04-02) Rocco, Joseph M; Zhou, Yifan; Liu, Nicholas S; Laidlaw, Elizabeth; Galindo, Frances; Anderson, Megan V; Rupert, Adam; Lage, Silvia L; Ortega-Villa, Ana M; Yu, Shiqin; Lisco, Andrea; Manion, Maura; Vassiliou, George S; Dunbar, Cynthia E; Sereti, Irini; Vassiliou, George [0000-0003-4337-8022]
    People with HIV (PWH) have a higher age-adjusted mortality due to chronic immune activation and age-related comorbidities. PWH also have higher rates of clonal hematopoiesis (CH) than age-matched non-HIV cohorts; however, risk factors influencing the development and expansion of CH in PWH remain incompletely explored. We investigated the relationship between CH, immune biomarkers, and HIV-associated risk factors (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, nadir CD4+ count, opportunistic infections [OIs], and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome [IRIS]) in a diverse cohort of 197 PWH with median age of 42 years, using a 56-gene panel. Seventy-nine percent had a CD4+ nadir below 200 cells/μL, 58.9% had prior OIs, and 34.5% had a history of IRIS. The prevalence of CH was high (27.4%), even in younger individuals, and CD8+ T cells and nadir CD4+ counts strongly associated with CH after controlling for age. A history of IRIS was associated with CH in a subgroup analysis of patients 35 years of age and older. Inflammatory biomarkers were higher in CH carriers compared with noncarriers, supporting a dysregulated immune state. These findings suggest PWH with low nadir CD4+ and/or inflammatory complications may be at high risk of CH regardless of age and represent a high-risk group that could benefit from risk reduction and potentially targeted immunomodulation.
  • ItemEmbargoAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    Social workers’ perceptions of the nature of child neglect: A systematic literature review
    (Oxford University Press (OUP)) Jennifer, Gibbs; Robert, Duschinsky; Duschinsky, Robert; Duschinsky, Robbie [0000-0003-2023-5328]
    Neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the UK and the USA. This paper reviews research about how child neglect is perceived by social workers. We conducted a systematic review and identified fifty relevant studies, using a range of methodologies, published since the 1989 Children Act. Themes were identified iteratively and synthesised using a narrative method. The review found that despite evidence that neglect is associated with several adverse outcomes, neglect is a lower priority for social work intervention compared to other forms of maltreatment. This is particularly true for emotional neglect and neglect of older children. The review found that social workers conceptualise poverty and neglect as being distinctly different and try to address poverty through practical, non-punitive interventions. However, assessments could better recognise how deprivation exacerbates other risk factors for neglect. The review found a lack of knowledge about perceptions of neglect in adolescents and children with a disability and about the threshold for intervention when neglect is cumulative. Practice may be improved by better recognising and addressing the societal context to neglect allegations and the risk of long-term harm. Achieving this may have resource and training implications.
  • ItemEmbargoAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    Demographic factors associated with within-individual variability of lung function for adults with cystic fibrosis: a UK registry study
    (Elsevier) Palma, Marco; Keogh, Ruth H; Carr, Siobhán B; Szczesniak, Rhonda; Taylor-Robinson, David; Wood, Angela M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Barrett, Jessica K; Palma, Marco [0000-0003-0497-9001]
    Background. Lung function is a key outcome used in the evaluation of disease progression in cystic fibrosis. The variability of individual lung function measurements over time (within-individual variability) has been shown to predict subsequent lung function changes. Nevertheless, the association between within-individual lung function variability and demographic and genetic covariates has not been quantified. Methods. We performed a longitudinal analysis of data from a cohort of 7099 adults with cystic fibrosis (between 18 and 49 years old) from the UK cystic fibrosis registry, containing annual review data between 1996 and 2020. A mixed-effects location-scale model is used to quantify mean FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) trajectories and FEV1 within-individual variability as a function of sex, age at annual review, diagnosis after first year of life, homozygous F508 genotype and birth cohort. Results. Mean FEV1 decreased with age and lung function variability showed a near-quadratic trend by age. Males showed higher FEV1 mean and variability than females across the whole age range. Earlier diagnosis and homozygous F508 genotype were also associated with higher FEV1 mean and variability. Individuals who died during follow-up showed on average higher lung function variability than those who survived. Conclusions. Key variables known to be linked with mean lung function in cystic fibrosis are also associated with an individual’s lung function variability. This work opens new avenues to understand the role played by lung function variability in disease progression and its utility in predicting key outcomes such as mortality.
  • ItemOpen AccessAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    Dissecting the roles of dynamin and clathrin in platelet pinocytosis.
    (Elsevier BV, 2024-06) Baxter, Ruby M; Harper, Matthew T; Baxter, Ruby M [0009-0009-0926-812X]; Harper, Matthew T [0000-0002-4740-637X]
    Platelets endocytose many molecules from their environment. However, this process of pinocytosis in platelets is poorly understood. Key endocytic regulators such as dynamin, clathrin, CDC42 and Arf6 are expressed in platelets but their roles in pinocytosis is not known. Stimulated platelets form two subpopulations of pro-aggregatory and procoagulant platelets. The effect of stimulation on pinocytosis is also poorly understood. In this study, washed human platelets were treated with a range of endocytosis inhibitors and stimulated using different activators. The rate of pinocytosis was assessed using pHrodo green, a pH sensitive 10kDa dextran. In unstimulated platelets, pHrodo fluorescence increased over time and accumulated as intracellular puncta indicating constituently active pinocytosis. Stimulated platelets (both pro-aggregatory and procoagulant) had an elevated pinocytosis rate compared to unstimulated platelets. Dynamin inhibition blocked pinocytosis in unstimulated, pro-aggregatory and procoagulant platelets indicating that that most platelet pinocytosis is dynamin dependent. Although pinocytosis was clathrin-independent in unstimulated and procoagulant populations, clathrin partially contributed to pinocytosis in pro-aggregatory platelets.
  • ItemEmbargoAccepted version Peer-reviewed
    Robotising Psychometrics: Validating Wellbeing Assessment Tools in Child-Robot Interactions
    Abbasi, Nida; Laban, Guy; Ford, Tamsin; Jones, Peter; Gunes, Hatice; Gunes, Hatice [0000-0003-2407-3012]
    The interdisciplinary nature of Child-Robot Interaction (CRI) fosters incorporating measures and methodologies from many established domains. However, when employing CRI approaches to sensitive avenues of health and wellbeing, caution is critical in adapting metrics to retain their safety standards and ensure accurate utilisation. We conducted a secondary analysis to previous empirical work, investigating the reliability and construct validity of established psychological questionnaires such as the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) and three subscales (generalised anxiety, panic and low mood) of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) within a CRI setting for the assessment of mental wellbeing. Through confirmatory principal component analysis, we have observed that these measures are reliable and valid in the context of CRI. Furthermore, our analysis revealed that scales communicated by a robot demonstrated a better fit than when self-reported, underscoring the efficiency and effectiveness of robot-mediated psychological assessments in these settings. Nevertheless, we have also observed variations in item contributions to the main factor, suggesting potential areas of examination and revision (e.g., relating to physiological changes, inactivity and cognitive demands) when used in CRI. Our findings highlight the importance of verifying the reliability and validity of standardised metrics and assessment tools when employed in CRI settings, thus, aiming to avoid any misinterpretations and misrepresentations.