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dc.contributor.authorKidambi, Piranen
dc.contributor.authorDucati, Caterinaen
dc.contributor.authorDlubak, Brunoen
dc.contributor.authorGardiner, Damianen
dc.contributor.authorWeatherup, Roberten
dc.contributor.authorMartin, Marie-Blandineen
dc.contributor.authorSeneor, Pierreen
dc.contributor.authorColes, Harryen
dc.contributor.authorHofmann, Stephanen
dc.date.accessioned2015-02-18T12:01:55Z
dc.date.available2015-02-18T12:01:55Z
dc.date.issued2012-09-27en
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Physical Chemistry C 2012, 116 (42), pp 22492–22501 DOI: 10.1021/jp303597men
dc.identifier.issn1932-7447
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/246856
dc.description.abstractA systematic study on the parameter space of graphene CVD on polycrystalline Cu foils is presented, aiming at a more fundamental process rationale in particular regarding the choice of carbon precursor and mitigation of Cu sublimation. CH4 as precursor requires H2 dilution and temperatures ≥1000°C to keep the Cu surface reduced and yield a high quality, complete monolayer graphene coverage. The H2 atmosphere etches as-grown graphene, hence maintaining a balanced CH4/H2 ratio is critical. Such balance is more easily achieved at low pressure conditions, at which however Cu sublimation reaches deleterious levels. In contrast, C6H6 as precursor requires no reactive diluent and consistently gives similar graphene quality at 100-150°C lower temperatures. The lower process temperature and more robust processing conditions allow the problem of Cu sublimation to be effectively addressed. Graphene formation is not inherently self-limited to a monolayer for any of the precursors. Rather, the higher the supplied carbon chemical potential the higher the likelihood of film inhomogeneity and primary and secondary multilayer graphene nucleation. For the latter, domain boundaries of the inherently polycrystalline CVD graphene offer pathways for a continued carbon supply to the catalyst. Graphene formation is significantly affected by the Cu crystallography, i.e. the evolution of microstructure and texture of the catalyst template form an integral part of the CVD process.
dc.description.sponsorshipS.H. acknowledges funding from ERC grant InsituNANO (n°279342) and from EPSRC (Grant Nr. EP/H047565/1). P.R.K. acknowledges funding from the Cambridge Commonwealth Trust and C.D. acknowledges funding from Royal Society.
dc.languageEnglishen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Society
dc.subjectmono and few-layer graphene (M/FLG)en
dc.subjectchemical vapor deposition (CVD)en
dc.subjectcopper (Cu)en
dc.subjectpolycrystallineen
dc.subjectmethane (CH4)en
dc.subjectbenzene (C6H6)en
dc.titleThe Parameter Space of Graphene CVD on Polycrystalline Cuen
dc.typeArticle
dc.description.versionThis is the accepted manuscript. The final version is available from ACS at http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jp303597m.en
prism.endingPage22501
prism.publicationDate2012en
prism.publicationNameJournal of Physical Chemistry Cen
prism.startingPage22492
prism.volume116en
dc.rioxxterms.funderERC
dc.rioxxterms.funderEPSRC
dc.rioxxterms.projectid279342
dc.rioxxterms.projectidEP/H047565/1
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1021/jp303597men
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2012-09-27en
dc.contributor.orcidDucati, Caterina [0000-0003-3366-6442]
dc.contributor.orcidWeatherup, Robert [0000-0002-3993-9045]
dc.contributor.orcidHofmann, Stephan [0000-0001-6375-1459]
dc.identifier.eissn1932-7455
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idEPSRC (EP/H047565/1)


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