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dc.contributor.authorMohd, Nadzir MSen
dc.contributor.authorPhang, SMen
dc.contributor.authorAbas, MRen
dc.contributor.authorAbdul, Rahman Nen
dc.contributor.authorAbu, Samah Aen
dc.contributor.authorSturges, WTen
dc.contributor.authorOram, DEen
dc.contributor.authorMills, GPen
dc.contributor.authorLeedham, ECen
dc.contributor.authorPyle, Johnen
dc.contributor.authorHarris, Neilen
dc.contributor.authorRobinson, Andrewen
dc.contributor.authorAshfold, MJen
dc.contributor.authorMead, MIen
dc.contributor.authorLatif, MTen
dc.contributor.authorKhan, MFen
dc.contributor.authorAmiruddin, AMen
dc.contributor.authorBanan, Nen
dc.contributor.authorHanafiah, MMen
dc.identifier.citationMohd Nadzir MS, Phang SM, Abas MR, Abdul Rahman N, Abu Samah A, Sturges WT, Oram DE, Mills GP, Leedham EC, Pyle JA, Harris NRP, Robinson AD, Ashfold MJ, Mead MI, Latif MT, Khan MF, Amiruddin AM, Banan N, Hanafiah MM, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8137-8148, doi:10.5194/acp-14-8137-2014, 2014.en
dc.description.abstractAtmospheric concentrations of very short-lived species (VSLS) bromocarbons, including CHBr_3, CH_2Br_2, CHCl_2Br, CHClBr_2, and CH_2BrCl, were measured in the Strait of Malacca and the South China and Sulu–Sulawesi seas during a two-month research cruise in June–July 2009. The highest bromocarbon concentrations were found in the Strait of Malacca, with smaller enhancements in coastal regions of northern Borneo. CHBr_3 was the most abundant bromocarbon, ranging from 5.2 pmol mol^−1 in the Strait of Malacca to 0.94 pmol mol^−1 over the open ocean. Other bromocarbons showed lower concentrations, in the range of 0.8–1.3 pmol mol^−1 for CH_2Br_2, 0.1–0.5 pmol mol^−1 for CHCl_2Br, and 0.1–0.4 pmol mol^−1 for CHClBr_2. There was no significant correlation between bromocarbons and in situ chlorophyll a, but positive correlations with both MODIS and SeaWiFS satellite chlorophyll a. Together, the short-lived bromocarbons contribute an average of 8.9 pmol mol^−1 (range 5.2–21.4 pmol mol^−1) to tropospheric bromine loading, which is similar to that found in previous studies from global sampling networks (Montzka et al., 2011). Statistical tests showed strong Spearman correlations between brominated compounds, suggesting a common source. Log–log plots of CHBr_3/CH_2Br_2 versus CHBr_2Cl/CH_2Br_2 show that both chemical reactions and dilution into the background atmosphere contribute to the composition of these halocarbons at each sampling point. We have used the correlation to make a crude estimate of the regional emissions of CHBr_3 and to derive a value of 32 Gg yr^−1 for the Southeast (SE) Asian region (10° N–20° S, 90–150° E). Finally, we note that satellite-derived chlorophyll a (chl a) products do not always agree well with in situ measurements, particularly in coastal regions of high turbidity, meaning that satellite chl a may not always be a good proxy for marine productivity.
dc.description.sponsorshipWe would like to thank MOSTI (Malaysian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation). for giving opportunities and financial support for the University of Malaya (UM) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia to participate in this scientific cruise, and other Malaysian public universities and agencies who helped during sampling. The Malaysian Royal Navy is thanked for their help and assistance in all aspects of the cruise. We also thank the SHIVA European FP7 project (grant 226224), NERC, NERC-NCAS and the British Council, through a PMI2 grant, for their support. Neil Harris would like to thank NERC for his Research Fellowship; Emma Leedham and Matt Ashfold thank NERC for studentships, and Doreena Dominick, Lin Chin Yik, Fatimah Ahamad and Nur Ily Hamizah for their assistance and the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (KPT’s) ERGS grant ER025-2013A. Finally, we also would like to thank Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) for the ICONIC-2013-004 grant, MOSTI e-science grant 04-01-02-SF-0752 for Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), UKM GGPM-2013-080 and UKM DPP-2014-162 and GUP-2013-057 for financial support.
dc.publisherCopernicus Publications
dc.rightsAttribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales*
dc.titleBromocarbons in the tropical coastal and open ocean atmosphere during the 2009 Prime Expedition Scientific Cruise (PESC-09)en
dc.description.versionThis paper was originally published in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 8137-8148, doi:10.5194/acp-14-8137-2014, 2014en
prism.publicationNameAtmospheric Chemistry and Physicsen
dc.rioxxterms.funderMalaysian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation
dc.rioxxterms.funderSHIVA European FP7 project
dc.rioxxterms.funderBritish Council
dc.rioxxterms.funderMinistry of Higher Education Malaysia (KPT’s) ERGS
dc.rioxxterms.funderUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
dc.contributor.orcidPyle, John [0000-0003-3629-9916]
dc.contributor.orcidHarris, Neil [0000-0003-1256-3006]
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idNERC (NE/F020341/1)
pubs.funder-project-idNERC (NE/G014655/1)
pubs.funder-project-idEC FP7 CP (226224)

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Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales