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dc.contributor.authorLarson, Felicity Ven
dc.contributor.authorLai, Meng-Chuanen
dc.contributor.authorWagner, Adamen
dc.contributor.authorMRC, AIMS Consortiumen
dc.contributor.authorBaron-Cohen, Simonen
dc.contributor.authorHolland, Anthonyen
dc.date.accessioned2015-06-17T14:23:31Z
dc.date.available2015-06-17T14:23:31Z
dc.date.issued2015-06-12en
dc.identifier.citationPLoS ONE 10(6): e0128102. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128102en
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/248531
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: Males and females in the general population differ, on average, in their drive for empathizing (higher in females) and systemizing (higher in males). People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a drive for systemizing over empathizing, irrespective of sex, which led to the conceptualisation of ASD as an ‘extreme of the typical male brain’. The opposite cognitive profile, an ‘extreme of the typical female brain’, has been proposed to be linked to conditions such as psychosis and mania/hypomania. Methods: We compared an empathizing-over-systemizing bias (for short ‘empathizing bias’) in individuals with ASD, who had experienced psychotic illness (N = 64) and who had not (N = 71). Results: There were overall differences in the distribution of cognitive style. Adults with ASD who had experienced psychosis were more likely to show an empathizing bias than adults with ASD who had no history of psychosis. This was modulated by IQ, and the group-difference was driven mainly by individuals with above-average IQ. In women with ASD and psychosis, the link between mania/hypomania and an empathizing bias was greater than in men with ASD. Conclusions: The bias for empathizing over systemizing may be linked to the presence of psychosis in people with ASD. Further research is needed in a variety of clinical populations, to understand the role an empathizing bias may play in the development and manifestation of mental illness.
dc.description.sponsorshipFVL was supported by the Medical Research Council (MRC) UK and the Baily Thomas Charitable Trust. M-CL was supported by the William Binks Autism Neuroscience Fellowship, the European Autism Interventions—A Multicentre Study for Developing New Medications (EU-AIMS), and Wolfson College, Cambridge. APW and AJH received support from the NIHR Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care East of England at the Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust during the preparation of this manuscript. SB-C was supported by the MRC, EU-AIMS, and the Autism Research Trust.
dc.languageEnglishen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherPLOS
dc.rightsAttribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/uk/*
dc.subjectautism spectrum disorderen
dc.subjectpsychosesen
dc.subjectdiagnostic medicineen
dc.subjectautismen
dc.subjectadultsen
dc.subjectcognitive psychologyen
dc.subjectconfidence intervalsen
dc.subjectmaniaen
dc.titleTesting the ‘extreme female brain’ theory of psychosis in adults with autism spectrum disorder with or without co-morbid psychosisen
dc.typeArticle
dc.description.versionThis is the final version. It was first published by PLOS at http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0128102#abstract0.en
prism.numbere0128102en
prism.publicationDate2015en
prism.publicationNamePLOS ONEen
prism.volume10en
dc.rioxxterms.funderMRC
dc.rioxxterms.funderNIHR
dcterms.dateAccepted2015-04-22en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1371/journal.pone.0128102en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2015-06-12en
dc.contributor.orcidBaron-Cohen, Simon [0000-0001-9217-2544]
dc.contributor.orcidHolland, Anthony [0000-0003-4107-130X]
dc.identifier.eissn1932-6203
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (G0600977)


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Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales