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dc.contributor.authorMosterín, Höpping Anaen
dc.contributor.authorMcElhaney, Janeten
dc.contributor.authorFonville, Judithen
dc.contributor.authorPowers, Douglas Cen
dc.contributor.authorBeyer, Walter EPen
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Dereken
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-17T12:31:17Z
dc.date.available2015-12-17T12:31:17Z
dc.date.issued2015-12-05en
dc.identifier.citationMosterín Höpping et al. Vaccine (2015) Vol. 34, Issue 4, pp. 540-546. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.11.058en
dc.identifier.issn0264-410X
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/253008
dc.description.abstractNumerous studies have explored whether the antibody response to influenza vaccination in elderly adults is as strong as it is in young adults. Results vary, but tend to indicate lower post-vaccination titers (antibody levels) in the elderly, supporting the concept of immunosenescence—the weakening of the immunological response related to age. Because the elderly in such studies typically have been vaccinated against influenza before enrollment, a confounding of effects occurs between age, and previous exposures, as a potential extrinsic reason for immunosenescence. We conducted a four-year study of serial annual immunizations with inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines in 136 young adults (16 to 39 years) and 122 elderly adults (62 to 92 years). Compared to data sets of previously published studies, which were designed to investigate the effect of age, this detailed longitudinal study with multiple vaccinations allowed us to also study the effect of prior vaccination history on the response to a vaccine. In response to the first vaccination, young adults produced higher post-vaccination titers, accounting for pre-vaccination titers, than elderly adults. However, upon subsequent vaccinations the difference in response to vaccination between the young and elderly age groups declined rapidly. Although age is an important factor when modeling the outcome of the first vaccination, this term lost its relevance with successive vaccinations. In fact, when we examined the data with the assumption that the elderly group had received (on average) as few as two vaccinations prior to our study, the difference due to age disappeared. Our analyses therefore show that the initial difference between the two age groups in their response to vaccination may not be uniquely explained by immunosenescence due to ageing of the immune system, but could equally be the result of the different pre-study vaccination and infection histories in the elderly.
dc.description.sponsorshipSupported by the NIH First Award R29AG11876 (PI: D. Powers), NIH Director's Pioneer Award, program grant P0050/2008 from the Human Frontier Science Program, European Union FP7 program EMPERIE (22349). This work was supported by the award of a Fellowship in Biomedical Informatics from the Medical Research Council (UK) and a Junior Research Fellowship from Homerton College Cambridge to JMF.
dc.languageEnglishen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherElsevier
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 UK: England & Wales*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk/*
dc.subjectInfluenza vaccineen
dc.subjectElderlyen
dc.subjectVaccine efficacyen
dc.subjectImmunosenescenceen
dc.subjectRepeated vaccinationen
dc.titleThe confounded effects of age and exposure history in response to influenza vaccinationen
dc.typeArticle
dc.description.versionThis is the final version of the article. It was first available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.11.058en
prism.endingPage546
prism.publicationDate2015en
prism.publicationNameVaccineen
prism.startingPage540
prism.volume34en
dc.rioxxterms.funderNIH
dc.rioxxterms.funderMRC
dc.rioxxterms.projectidR29AG11876
dc.rioxxterms.projectidP0050/2008
dc.rioxxterms.projectidHHSN266200700010C
dc.rioxxterms.projectidHHSN272201400008C
dcterms.dateAccepted2015-11-19en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.11.058en
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2015-12-05en
dc.contributor.orcidSmith, Derek [0000-0002-2393-1890]
dc.identifier.eissn1873-2518
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idNIH Office of the Director (DP1OD000490)
pubs.funder-project-idNational Institutes of Health (NIH) (via Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM)) (HHSN272201400008C)
pubs.funder-project-idWellcome Trust (100891/Z/13/Z)


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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 UK: England & Wales
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