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dc.contributor.authorMackay, Daniel Fen
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Gordon Campbellen
dc.contributor.authorCooper, Sally-Annen
dc.contributor.authorWood, Rachaelen
dc.contributor.authorKing, Alberten
dc.contributor.authorClark, David Nen
dc.contributor.authorPell, Jill Pen
dc.date.accessioned2016-08-18T15:50:12Z
dc.date.available2016-08-18T15:50:12Z
dc.date.issued2016-09-20en
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/257342
dc.description.abstractLLearning disabilities have profound, long-lasting health sequelae. Affected children born over the course of 1 year in the United States of America generated an estimated lifetime cost of $51.2 billion. Results from some studies have suggested that autistic spectrum disorder may vary by season of birth, but there have been few studies in which investigators examined whether this is also true of other causes of learning disabilities. We undertook Scotland-wide record linkage of education (annual pupil census) and maternity (Scottish Morbidity Record 02) databases for 801,592 singleton children attending Scottish schools in 2006–2011. We modeled monthly rates using principal sine and cosine transformations of the month number and demonstrated cyclicity in the percentage of children with special educational needs. Rates were highest among children conceived in the first quarter of the year (January–March) and lowest among those conceived in the third (July–September) (8.9% vs 7.6%; P < 0.001). Seasonal variations were specific to autistic spectrum disorder, intellectual disabilities, and learning difficulties (e.g., dyslexia) and were absent for sensory or motor/physical impairments and mental, physical, or communication problems. Seasonality accounted for 11.4% (95% confidence interval: 9.0, 13.7) of all cases. Some biologically plausible causes of this variation, such as infection and maternal vitamin D levels, are potentially amendable to intervention.
dc.description.sponsorshipScottish Collaboration for Public Health Research & Policy
dc.languageEnglishen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherOxford University Press
dc.subjecteducational statusen
dc.subjectobstetric deliveryen
dc.subjectintellectual disabilitiesen
dc.subjectdevelopmental disabilitiesen
dc.subjectseasonal variationen
dc.titleMonth of Conception and Learning Disabilities: A Record-Linkage Study of 801,592 Childrenen
dc.typeArticle
dc.description.versionThis is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Oxford University Press via http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kww096en
prism.endingPage493
prism.publicationDate2016en
prism.publicationNameAmerican Journal of Epidemiologyen
prism.startingPage485
prism.volume184en
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.1275
dcterms.dateAccepted2016-07-21en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1093/aje/kww096en
rioxxterms.versionAMen
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2016-09-20en
dc.contributor.orcidSmith, Gordon Campbell [0000-0003-2124-0997]
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2017-09-20


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