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dc.contributor.authorForouhi, Nitaen
dc.contributor.authorImamura, Fumiakien
dc.contributor.authorSharp, Stephenen
dc.contributor.authorKoulman, Alberten
dc.contributor.authorSchulze, Matthias Ben
dc.contributor.authorZheng, Jushengen
dc.contributor.authorYe, Zhengen
dc.contributor.authorSluijs, Ivonneen
dc.contributor.authorGuevara, Marcelaen
dc.contributor.authorHuerta, José Maríaen
dc.contributor.authorKröger, Janineen
dc.contributor.authorWang, Linlinen
dc.contributor.authorSummerhill, Keithen
dc.contributor.authorGriffin, Julianen
dc.contributor.authorFeskens, Edith JMen
dc.contributor.authorAffret, Aurélieen
dc.contributor.authorAmiano, Pilaren
dc.contributor.authorBoeing, Heineren
dc.contributor.authorDow, Courtneyen
dc.contributor.authorFagherazzi, Guyen
dc.contributor.authorFranks, Paul Wen
dc.contributor.authorGonzalez, Carlosen
dc.contributor.authorKaaks, Rudolfen
dc.contributor.authorKey, Timothy Jen
dc.contributor.authorKhaw, Kay-Teeen
dc.contributor.authorKühn, Tilmanen
dc.contributor.authorMortensen, Lotte Maxilden
dc.contributor.authorNilsson, Peter Men
dc.contributor.authorOvervad, Kimen
dc.contributor.authorPala, Valeriaen
dc.contributor.authorPalli, Domenicoen
dc.contributor.authorPanico, Salvatoreen
dc.contributor.authorQuirós, J Ramónen
dc.contributor.authorRodriguez-Barranco, Miguelen
dc.contributor.authorRolandsson, Oloven
dc.contributor.authorSacerdote, Carlottaen
dc.contributor.authorScalbert, Augustinen
dc.contributor.authorSlimani, Nadiaen
dc.contributor.authorSpijkerman, Annemieke MWen
dc.contributor.authorTjonneland, Anneen
dc.contributor.authorTormo, Maria-Joseen
dc.contributor.authorTumino, Rosarioen
dc.contributor.authorvan, der A Daphne Len
dc.contributor.authorvan, der Schouw Yvonne Ten
dc.contributor.authorLangenberg, Claudiaen
dc.contributor.authorRiboli, Elioen
dc.contributor.authorWareham, Nicholasen
dc.date.accessioned2016-09-07T09:35:05Z
dc.date.available2016-09-07T09:35:05Z
dc.date.issued2016-07-19en
dc.identifier.issn1549-1277
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/259989
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77-0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs. CONCLUSIONS: These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they highlight that the most abundant n6-PUFA (LA) is inversely associated with T2D. The detection of associations with previously less well-investigated PUFAs points to the importance of considering individual fatty acids rather than focusing on fatty acid class.
dc.format.mediumElectronic-eCollectionen
dc.languageengen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.subjectHumansen
dc.subjectDiabetes Mellitus, Type 2en
dc.subjectFatty Acids, Omega-3en
dc.subjectFatty Acids, Unsaturateden
dc.subjectFatty Acids, Omega-6en
dc.subjectCase-Control Studiesen
dc.subjectMiddle Ageden
dc.subjectMaleen
dc.titleAssociation of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study.en
dc.typeArticle
prism.publicationDate2016en
prism.publicationNamePLoS Medicineen
prism.startingPagee1002094
prism.volume13en
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.4217
dcterms.dateAccepted2016-06-16en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1371/journal.pmed.1002094en
rioxxterms.versionVoRen
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2016-07-19en
dc.contributor.orcidForouhi, Nita [0000-0002-5041-248X]
dc.contributor.orcidImamura, Fumiaki [0000-0002-6841-8396]
dc.contributor.orcidSharp, Stephen [0000-0003-2375-1440]
dc.contributor.orcidKoulman, Albert [0000-0001-9998-051X]
dc.contributor.orcidZheng, Jusheng [0000-0001-6560-4890]
dc.contributor.orcidGriffin, Julian [0000-0003-1336-7744]
dc.contributor.orcidKhaw, Kay-Tee [0000-0002-8802-2903]
dc.contributor.orcidLangenberg, Claudia [0000-0002-5017-7344]
dc.contributor.orcidWareham, Nicholas [0000-0003-1422-2993]
dc.identifier.eissn1549-1676
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MC_UU_12015/1)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MC_UU_12015/5)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MR/P011705/1)
pubs.funder-project-idMEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (MR/N003284/1)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MR/P01836X/1)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (G1000143)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (G0401527)
pubs.funder-project-idMEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (MR/L00002/1)
pubs.funder-project-idEuropean Commission Horizon 2020 (H2020) Marie Sk?odowska-Curie actions (701708)
pubs.funder-project-idMedical Research Council (MC_PC_13030)


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