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dc.contributor.authorRowe, WPMen
dc.contributor.authorBaker-Austin, Cen
dc.contributor.authorVerner-Jeffreys, DWen
dc.contributor.authorRyan, JJen
dc.contributor.authorMicallef, Cen
dc.contributor.authorMaskell, Duncanen
dc.contributor.authorPearce, Garethen
dc.date.accessioned2017-03-24T09:01:37Z
dc.date.available2017-03-24T09:01:37Z
dc.identifier.issn0305-7453
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/263200
dc.description.abstract$\textbf{Objectives}$: Effluents contain a diverse abundance of antibiotic resistance genes that augment the resistome of receiving aquatic environments. However, uncertainty remains regarding their temporal persistence, transcription and response to anthropogenic factors, such as antibiotic usage. We present a spatiotemporal study within a river catchment (River Cam, UK) that aims to determine the contribution of antibiotic resistance gene-containing effluents originating from sites of varying antibiotic usage to the receiving environment. $\textbf{Methods}$: Gene abundance in effluents (municipal hospital and dairy farm) was compared against background samples of the receiving aquatic environment (i.e. the catchment source) to determine the resistome contribution of effluents. We used metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to correlate DNA and RNA abundance and identified differentially regulated gene transcripts. $\textbf{Results}$: We found that mean antibiotic resistance gene and transcript abundances were correlated for both hospital (ρ=0.9, two-tailed $\textit{P}$<0.0001) and farm (ρ=0.5, two-tailed $\textit{P}$<0.0001) effluents and that two β-lactam resistance genes ($\textit{bla}$GES and $\textit{bla}$OXA) were overexpressed in all hospital effluent samples. High β-lactam resistance gene transcript abundance was related to hospital antibiotic usage over time and hospital effluents contained antibiotic residues. $\textbf{Conclusions}$: We conclude that effluents contribute high levels of antibiotic resistance genes to the aquatic environment; these genes are expressed at significant levels and are possibly related to the level of antibiotic usage at the effluent source.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, GlaxoSmithKline and the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science.
dc.languageengen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherOxford University Press
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.subjectantibioticsen
dc.subjectantibioticen
dc.subjectresistanceen
dc.subjectbacterialen
dc.subjectdnaen
dc.subjectgenesen
dc.subjecthospitalsen
dc.subjectmunicipalen
dc.subjectlactamsen
dc.subjectrnaen
dc.subjectproteinen
dc.subjectoverexpressionen
dc.subjectmetagenomicsen
dc.subjectresistance genesen
dc.titleOverexpression of antibiotic resistance genes in hospital effluents over timeen
dc.typeArticle
prism.publicationNameJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapyen
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.8512
dcterms.dateAccepted2017-01-09en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1093/jac/dkx017en
rioxxterms.versionVoRen
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2017-01-09en
dc.contributor.orcidMaskell, Duncan [0000-0002-5065-653X]
dc.contributor.orcidPearce, Gareth [0000-0002-0656-6553]
dc.identifier.eissn1460-2091
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
cam.issuedOnline2017-02-08en
cam.orpheus.successThu Jan 30 12:56:46 GMT 2020 - The item has an open VoR version.*
rioxxterms.freetoread.startdate2100-01-01


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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 4.0 International