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dc.contributor.authorFedirko, Ven
dc.contributor.authorTran, HQen
dc.contributor.authorGewirtz, ATen
dc.contributor.authorStepien, Men
dc.contributor.authorTrichopoulou, Aen
dc.contributor.authorAleksandrova, Ken
dc.contributor.authorOlsen, Aen
dc.contributor.authorTjønneland, Aen
dc.contributor.authorOvervad, Ken
dc.contributor.authorCarbonnel, Fen
dc.contributor.authorBoutron-Ruault, M-Cen
dc.contributor.authorSeveri, Gen
dc.contributor.authorKühn, Ten
dc.contributor.authorKaaks, Ren
dc.contributor.authorBoeing, Hen
dc.contributor.authorBamia, Cen
dc.contributor.authorLagiou, Pen
dc.contributor.authorGrioni, Sen
dc.contributor.authorPanico, Sen
dc.contributor.authorPalli, Den
dc.contributor.authorTumino, Ren
dc.contributor.authorNaccarati, Aen
dc.contributor.authorPeeters, PHen
dc.contributor.authorBueno-de-Mesquita, HBen
dc.contributor.authorWeiderpass, Een
dc.contributor.authorCastaño, JMHen
dc.contributor.authorBarricarte, Aen
dc.contributor.authorSánchez, M-Jen
dc.contributor.authorDorronsoro, Men
dc.contributor.authorQuirós, JRen
dc.contributor.authorAgudo, Aen
dc.contributor.authorSjöberg, Ken
dc.contributor.authorOhlsson, Ben
dc.contributor.authorHemmingsson, Oen
dc.contributor.authorWerner, Men
dc.contributor.authorBradbury, KEen
dc.contributor.authorKhaw, Kay-Teeen
dc.contributor.authorWareham, Nicholasen
dc.contributor.authorTsilidis, KKen
dc.contributor.authorAune, Den
dc.contributor.authorScalbert, Aen
dc.contributor.authorRomieu, Ien
dc.contributor.authorRiboli, Een
dc.contributor.authorJenab, Men
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Leakage of bacterial products across the gut barrier may play a role in liver diseases which often precede the development of liver cancer. However, human studies, particularly from prospective settings, are lacking. METHODS: We used a case-control study design nested within a large prospective cohort to assess the association between circulating levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-flagellin immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG) (reflecting long-term exposures to LPS and flagellin, respectively) and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A total of 139 men and women diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma between 1992 and 2010 were matched to 139 control subjects. Multivariable rate ratios (RRs), including adjustment for potential confounders, hepatitis B/C positivity, and degree of liver dysfunction, were calculated with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Antibody response to LPS and flagellin was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (highest vs. lowest quartile: RR = 11.76, 95% confidence interval = 1.70-81.40; P trend = 0.021). This finding did not vary substantially by time from enrollment to diagnosis, and did not change after adjustment for chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings, based on exposures up to several years prior to diagnosis, support a role for gut-derived bacterial products in hepatocellular carcinoma development. Further study into the role of gut barrier failure and exposure to bacterial products in liver diseases is warranted.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by the French National Cancer Institute (L’Institut National du Cancer; INCA) (grant number 2009-139; Principal Investigator: M. Jenab). The coordination of EPIC is financially supported by the European Commission (DG-SANCO) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The national cohorts are supported by the Danish Cancer Society (Denmark); Ligue Contre le Cancer, Institut Gustave Roussy, Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale, and Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) (France); Deutsche Krebshilfe, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, and Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany); the Hellenic Health Foundation (Greece); the Sicilian Government, AIRE ONLUS Ragusa, AVIS Ragusa, Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro-AIRC-Italy, and National Research Council (Italy); Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports (VWS), Netherlands Cancer Registry (NKR), LK Research Funds, Dutch Prevention Funds, Dutch ZON (Zorg Onderzoek Nederland), World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), and Statistics Netherlands (the Netherlands); Nordic Centre of Excellence programme on Food, Nutrition and Health. (Norway); Health Research Fund (FIS), PI13/00061 to Granada), Regional Governments of Andalucía, Asturias, Basque Country, Murcia (no. 6236) and Navarra, Regional Government of Asturias (Asturias, Spain), and ISCIII RETIC (RD06/0020) (Spain); Swedish Cancer Society, Swedish Scientific Council, and County Councils of Skåne and Västerbotten (Sweden); Cancer Research UK (14136 to EPIC-Norfolk; C570/A16491 to EPIC-Oxford) and Medical Research Council (1000143 to EPIC-Norfolk) (United Kingdom); and a Girdlers’ New Zealand Health Research Council Fellowship (to Dr. K.E. Bradbury). The funding sources had no influence on the design of the study; the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; the writing of the report; or the decision to submit the paper for publication.
dc.publisherBioMed Central
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 Internationalen
dc.subjectHepatocellular carcinomaen
dc.subjectProspective studiesen
dc.titleExposure to bacterial products lipopolysaccharide and flagellin and hepatocellular carcinoma: a nested case-control study.en
prism.publicationNameBMC Medicineen
dc.contributor.orcidKhaw, Kay-Tee [0000-0002-8802-2903]
dc.contributor.orcidWareham, Nicholas [0000-0003-1422-2993]
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (G0401527)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (G1000143)
pubs.funder-project-idMEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (MR/N003284/1)

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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's licence is described as Attribution 4.0 International