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dc.contributor.authorThater, Sen
dc.contributor.authorKrajnović, Den
dc.contributor.authorBourne, Martinen
dc.contributor.authorCappellari, Men
dc.contributor.authorDe Zeeuw, Ten
dc.contributor.authorEmsellem, Een
dc.contributor.authorMagorrian, Jen
dc.contributor.authorMcDermid, RMen
dc.contributor.authorSarzi, Men
dc.contributor.authorVan De Ven, Gen
dc.date.accessioned2017-06-12T10:04:11Z
dc.date.available2017-06-12T10:04:11Z
dc.date.issued2017-01-01en
dc.identifier.issn0004-6361
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/264715
dc.description.abstractWe present our mass estimate of the central black hole in the isolated spiral galaxy NGC 4414. Using natural guide star adaptive optics assisted observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) and the natural seeing Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs-North (GMOS), we derived two-dimensional stellar kinematic maps of NGC 4414 covering the central 1.5 arcsec and 10 arcsec, respectively, at a NIFS spatial resolution of 0.13 arcsec. The kinematic maps reveal a regular rotation pattern and a central velocity dispersion dip down to around 105 km s$^{-1}$. We constructed dynamical models using two different methods: Jeans anisotropic dynamical modeling and axisymmetric Schwarzschild modeling. Both modeling methods give consistent results, but we cannot constrain the lower mass limit and only measure an upper limit for the black hole mass of M$_{BH}$ = 1.56 × 10$^{6}$M⊙ (at 3σ level) which is at least 1σ below the recent M$_{BH}$−σe relations. Further tests with dark matter, mass-to-light ratio variation and different light models confirm that our results are not dominated by uncertainties. The derived upper limit mass is not only below the M$_{BH}$−σe relation, but is also five times lower than the lower limit black hole mass anticipated from the resolution limit of the sphere of influence. This proves that via high quality integral field data we are now able to push black hole measurements down to at least five times less than the resolution limit.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors want to thank Tony Wong for providing the CO data of NGC 4414 and Remco Van den Bosch for fruitful discussions regarding the MGE model of NGC 4414. M.C. acknowledges support from a Royal Society University Research Fellowship. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), under program GN-2007A-Q-45. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the ESA Hubble Science Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Funding for SDSS-III has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The SDSS-III web site is http://www.sdss3.org/. SDSS-III is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS-III Collaboration including the University of Arizona, the Brazilian Participation Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Florida, the French Participation Group, the German Participation Group, Harvard University, the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, New Mexico State University, New York University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the Spanish Participation Group, University of Tokyo, University of Utah, Vanderbilt University, University of Virginia, University of Washington, and Yale University. This research made use of Montage. It is funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number ACI-1440620, and was previously funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Earth Science Technology Office, Computation Technologies Project, under Cooperative Agreement Number NCC5-626 between NASA and the California Institute of Technology. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We acknowledge the usage of the HyperLeda database (http://leda.univ-lyon1.fr)
dc.languageengen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherEDP Sciences
dc.subjectgalaxies: individual: NGC 4414en
dc.subjectgalaxies: spiralen
dc.subjectgalaxies: kinematics and dynamicsen
dc.titleA low upper mass limit for the central black hole in the late-type galaxy NGC 4414en
dc.typeArticle
prism.numberA18en
prism.publicationDate2017en
prism.publicationNameAstronomy & Astrophysicsen
prism.volume597en
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.10397
dcterms.dateAccepted2016-10-04en
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1051/0004-6361/201629480en
rioxxterms.versionVoRen
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://www.rioxx.net/licenses/all-rights-reserveden
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2017-01-01en
dc.contributor.orcidBourne, Martin [0000-0003-3189-1638]
dc.identifier.eissn1432-0746
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen
pubs.funder-project-idECH2020 EUROPEAN RESEARCH COUNCIL (ERC) (638707)
cam.issuedOnline2016-12-19en


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