Cognitive reserve as a moderator of the negative association between mood and cognition: evidence from a population-representative cohort
Cambridge University Press
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Opdebeeck, C., Matthews, F., Wu, Y., Woods, R., Brayne, C., & Clare, L. (2017). Cognitive reserve as a moderator of the negative association between mood and cognition: evidence from a population-representative cohort. Psychological Medicine https://doi.org/10.1017/S003329171700126X
BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve (CR) has been associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of depression in older people, yet it remains unclear whether CR moderates the association between mood and cognition. This study aimed to investigate whether a comprehensive indicator of CR, including education, occupation and engagement in cognitive and social activities, acts as a moderator of this association. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study utilising baseline data from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study II (CFAS II), a large population-based cohort of people aged 65+ in England. Complete data on the measures of CR, mood and cognition were available for 6565 dementia-free individuals. Linear regression models were used to investigate the potential modifying effect of CR on the association between cognition and mood with adjustment for age, sex and missing data. RESULTS: Levels of CR did moderate the negative association between mood and cognition; the difference in cognition between those with and without a clinical level mood disorder was significantly smaller in the middle (-2.28; 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.65 to -0.90) and higher (-1.30; 95% CI -2.46 to -0.15) CR groups compared with the lower CR group (-4.01; 95% CI -5.53 to -2.49). The individual components of CR did not significantly moderate the negative association between mood and cognition. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that CR, indexed by a composite score based on multiple indicators, can moderate the negative association between lowered mood and cognition, emphasising the importance of continuing to build CR across the lifespan in order to maintain cognitive health.
Anxiety, cognitive activity, depression, education, occupation, social activity
CFAS II has been supported by the UK Medical Research Council (research grant: G06010220) and received additional support from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), comprehensive clinical research networks in West Anglia, Nottingham City and Nottinghamshire County NHS Primary Care trusts and the dementias and neurodegenerative disease research Network (DeNDRoN) in Newcastle. FEM is supported by the MRC (research grant, U105292687). The funders are represented on the CFAS management committee and the biological resource advisory committee but they had no role in the study design, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the report.
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S003329171700126X
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/266779