An Alternative Strategy for Trypanosome Survival in the Mammalian Bloodstream Revealed through Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Ubiquitous Bovine Parasite Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri
Genome Biology and Evolution
Oxford University Press
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Carrington, M. (2017). An Alternative Strategy for Trypanosome Survival in the Mammalian Bloodstream Revealed through Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Ubiquitous Bovine Parasite Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri. Genome Biology and Evolution, 9 (8), 2093-2109. https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evx152
There are hundreds of Trypanosoma species that live in the blood and tissue spaces of their vertebrate hosts. The vast majority of these do not have the ornate system of antigenic variation that has evolved in the small number of African trypanosome species, but can still maintain long-term infections in the face of the vertebrate adaptive immune system. Trypanosoma theileri is a typical example, has a restricted host range of cattle and other Bovinae, and is only occasionally reported to cause patent disease although no systematic survey of the effect of infection on agricultural productivity has been performed. Here, a detailed genome sequence and a transcriptome analysis of gene expression in bloodstream form T. theileri have been performed. Analysis of the genome sequence and expression showed that T. theileri has a typical kinetoplastid genome structure and allowed a prediction that it is capable of meiotic exchange, gene silencing via RNA interference and, potentially, density-dependent growth control. In particular, the transcriptome analysis has allowed a comparison of two distinct trypanosome cell surfaces, T. brucei and T. theileri, that have each evolved to enable the maintenance of a long-term extracellular infection in cattle. The T. theileri cell surface can be modeled to contain a mixture of proteins encoded by four novel large and divergent gene families and by members of a major surface protease gene family. This surface composition is distinct from the uniform variant surface glycoprotein coat on African trypanosomes providing an insight into a second mechanism used by trypanosome species that proliferate in an extracellular milieu in vertebrate hosts to avoid the adaptive immune response.
Trypanosoma theileri, genome, transcriptome, cell surface components
Is supplemented by: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.193020
This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/F00057X/1 and BB/L02442X/1 to K.M.); the Wellcome Trust grants (103740 and 095831 to K.M., 085256 to M.Ca.); an EU Horizon 2020 award (637765 to S.K.). S.K. is a Royal Society University Research Fellow; M.Cl. and K.T. are recipients of an RCUK-CONFAP research partnership award (BB/M029239/1). Next-generation sequencing and library construction was delivered via the BBSRC National Capability in Genomics (BB/J010375/1) at the Earlham Institute (EI, formerly The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich), by members of the Platforms and Pipelines Group. Bioinformatics support was funded via BBSRC Institute Strategic Programme grant (BB/J004669/1) to the Earlham Institute.
Wellcome Trust (085256/Z/08/Z)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evx152
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/267509
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