High-redshift Extremely Red Quasars in X-Rays
Goulding, Andy D
Zakamska, Nadia L
Alexandroff, Rachael M
Assef, Roberto J
Brandt, William N
Greene, Jenny E
Strauss, Michael A
MetadataShow full item record
Goulding, A. D., Zakamska, N. L., Alexandroff, R. M., Assef, R. J., Banerji, M., Hamann, F., Wylezalek, D., et al. (2018). High-redshift Extremely Red Quasars in X-Rays. Astrophysical Journal, 856 (4)https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aab040
Quasars may have played a key role in limiting the stellar mass of massive galaxies. Identifying those quasars in the process of removing star formation fuel from their hosts is an exciting ongoing challenge in extragalactic astronomy. In this paper, we present X-ray observations of 11 extremely red quasars (ERQs) with L bol ~ 1047 erg s−1 at z = 1.5–3.2 with evidence for high-velocity (v $\geqslant $ 1000 km s−1) [O iii] λ5007 outflows. X-rays allow us to directly probe circumnuclear obscuration and to measure the instantaneous accretion luminosity. We detect 10 out of 11 ERQs available in targeted and archival data. Using a combination of X-ray spectral fitting and hardness ratios, we find that all of the ERQs show signs of absorption in the X-rays with inferred column densities of N H ≈ 1023 cm−2, including four Compton-thick candidates (N H $\geqslant $ 1024 cm−2). We stack the X-ray emission of the seven weakly detected sources, measuring an average column density of N H ~ 8 × 1023 cm−2. The absorption-corrected (intrinsic) 2–10 keV X-ray luminosity of the stack is 2.7 × 1045 erg s−1, consistent with X-ray luminosities of type 1 quasars of the same infrared luminosity. Thus, we find that ERQs are a highly obscured, borderline Compton-thick population, and based on optical and infrared data we suggest that these objects are partially hidden by their own equatorial outflows. However, unlike some quasars with known outflows, ERQs do not appear to be intrinsically underluminous in X-rays for their bolometric luminosity. Our observations indicate that low X-rays are not necessary to enable some types of radiatively driven winds.
galaxies: active, quasars: emission lines, quasars: general, x-rays: galaxies
N.L.Z. is grateful to the Institute for Advanced Study for support through the Junior Visiting Professor program and hospitality during multiple subsequent visits which enabled completion of this project, and to Johns Hopkins University for support via the Catalyst Award. Support for this work was also provided in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through Chandra Award Numbers GO5-16107X and GO6-17100X issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics Space Administration under contract NAS8-03060. R.J.A. was supported by FONDECYT grant number 1151408. The work of D.S. was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. The scientific results reported in this paper are based to a significant degree on observations made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive.
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY FACILITIES COUNCIL (ST/M005305/1)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aab040
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/277268