Transcriptional and Translational Landscape of Equine Torovirus.
Journal of virology
American Society for Microbiology
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Stewart, H., Brown, K., Dinan, A., Irigoyen, N., Snijder, E. J., & Firth, A. (2018). Transcriptional and Translational Landscape of Equine Torovirus.. Journal of virology, 92 (17)https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00589-18
The genus Torovirus (subfamily Torovirinae, family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales) encompasses a range of species that infect domestic ungulates including cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and horses, causing an acute self-limiting gastroenteritis. Using the prototype species equine torovirus (EToV) we performed parallel RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and ribosome profiling (Ribo-seq) to analyse the relative expression levels of the known torovirus proteins and transcripts, chimaeric sequences produced via discontinuous RNA synthesis (a characteristic of the nidovirus replication cycle) and changes in host transcription and translation as a result of EToV infection. RNA sequencing confirmed that EToV utilises a unique combination of discontinuous and non-discontinuous RNA synthesis to produce its subgenomic RNAs; indeed, we identified transcripts arising from both mechanisms that would result in sgRNAs encoding the nucleocapsid. Our ribosome profiling analysis revealed that ribosomes efficiently translate two novel CUG-initiated ORFs, located within the so-called 5’ UTR. We have termed the resulting proteins U1 and U2. Comparative genomic analysis confirmed that these ORFs are conserved across all available torovirus sequences and the inferred amino acid sequences are subject to purifying selection, indicating that U1 and U2 are functionally relevant. This study provides the first high-resolution analysis of transcription and translation in this neglected group of livestock pathogens.
Cells, Cultured, Animals, Horses, Torovirus, Viral Proteins, Virus Cultivation, Gene Expression Profiling, Sequence Analysis, RNA, Protein Biosynthesis, Transcription, Genetic, Host-Pathogen Interactions
WELLCOME TRUST (106207/Z/14/Z)
European Commission Horizon 2020 (H2020) ERC (646891)
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00589-18
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/283526
Attribution 4.0 International
Licence URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/