Notch sensitivity of orthotropic solids: interaction of tensile and shear damage zones.
The macroscopic tensile strength of a panel containing a centre-crack or a centre-hole is predicted, assuming the simultaneous activation of multiple cohesive zones. The panel is made from an orthotropic elastic solid, and the stress raiser has both a tensile cohesive zone ahead of its tip, and shear cohesive zones in an orthogonal direction in order to represent two simultaneous damage mechanisms. These cohesive zones allow for two modes of fracture: (i) crack extension by penetration, and (ii) splitting in an orthogonal direction. The sensitivity of macroscopic tensile strength and failure mode to the degree of orthotropy is explored. The role of notch acuity and notch size are assessed by comparing the response of the pre-crack to that of the circular hole. This study reveals the role of the relative strength and relative toughness of competing damage modes in dictating the macroscopic strength of a notched panel made from an orthotropic elastic solid. Universal failure mechanism maps are constructed for the pre-crack and hole for a wide range of material orthotropies. The maps are useful for predicting whether failure is by penetration or kinking. Case studies are developed to compare the predictions with observations taken from the literature for selected orthotropic solids. It is found that synergistic strengthening occurs: when failure is by crack penetration ahead of the stress raiser, the presence of shear plastic zones leads to an enhancement of macroscopic strength. In contrast, when failure is by crack kinking, the presence of a tensile plastic zone ahead of the stress raiser has only a mild effect upon the macroscopic strength.
Online Publication Date