IRF5 promotes influenza-induced inflammatory responses in human iPSC-derived myeloid cells and murine models.
Forbester, Jessica L
Coomber, Eve L
Humphreys, Ian R
Journal of Virology
American Society for Microbiology
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Forbester, J. L., Clement, M., Wellington, D., Yeung, A., Dimonte, S., Marsden, M., Chapman, L., et al. (2020). IRF5 promotes influenza-induced inflammatory responses in human iPSC-derived myeloid cells and murine models.. Journal of Virology https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00121-20
Recognition of Influenza A virus (IAV) by the innate immune system triggers pathways that restrict viral replication, activates innate immune cells, and regulates adaptive immunity. However, excessive innate immune activation can exaggerate disease. The pathways promoting excessive activation are incompletely understood, with limited experimental models to investigate mechanisms driving influenza-induced inflammation in humans. Interferon regulatory factor (IRF5) is a transcription factor that plays important roles in induction of cytokines after viral sensing. In an in vivo model of IAV infection, IRF5 deficiency reduced IAV-driven immune pathology and associated inflammatory cytokine production, specifically reducing cytokine-producing myeloid cell populations in Irf5-/- mice, but not impacting type 1 IFN production or virus replication. Using cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF), we identified that human lung IRF5 expression was highest in cells of the myeloid lineage. To investigate the role of IRF5 in mediating human inflammatory responses by myeloid cells to IAV, we employed human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) with biallelic mutations in IRF5, demonstrating for the first time iPS-derived dendritic cells (iPS-DCs) with biallelic mutations can be used to investigate regulation of human virus-induced immune responses. Using this technology, we reveal that IRF5 deficiency in human DCs, or macrophages, corresponded with reduced virus-induced inflammatory cytokine production, with IRF5 acting downstream of TLR7 and, possibly, RIG-I after viral sensing. Thus, IRF5 acts as a regulator of myeloid cell inflammatory cytokine production during IAV infection in mice and humans, and drives immune-mediated viral pathogenesis independently of type 1 IFN and virus replication.ImportanceThe inflammatory response to Influenza A virus (IAV) participates in infection control but contributes to disease severity. After viral detection intracellular pathways are activated, initiating cytokine production, but these pathways are incompletely understood. We show that interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) mediates IAV-induced inflammation and, in mice, drives pathology. This was independent of antiviral type 1 IFN and virus replication, implying that IRF5 could be specifically targeted to treat influenza-induced inflammation. We show for the first time that human iPSC technology can be exploited in genetic studies of virus-induced immune responses. Using this technology, we deleted IRF5 in human myeloid cells. These IRF5-deficient cells exhibited impaired influenza-induced cytokine production and revealed that IRF5 acts downstream of Toll-like receptor 7 and possibly retinoic acid-inducible gene-I. Our data demonstrate the importance of IRF5 in influenza-induced inflammation, suggesting genetic variation in the IRF5 gene may influence host susceptibility to viral diseases.
This work was supported by The Wellcome Trust. This work was funded by a Wellcome 641 Trust Senior Research Fellowship to Ian Humphreys (207503/Z/17/Z); Medical Research 642 Council, United Kingdom (MR/L018942/1 and MRC Human Immunology Unit Core); 643 Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences 644 (CIFMS), China (grant number: 2018-I2M-2-002). The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute was 645 the source of the Kolf2 human induced pluripotent cell line which was generated under the 646 Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Initiative funded by a grant from the Wellcome Trust Downloaded from http://jvi.asm.org/ on March 2, 2020 at CAMBRIDGE UNIV27 and Medical Research Council, supported 647 by the Wellcome Trust (WT098051) and the 648 NIHR/Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, and Life Science Technologies 649 Corporation provided Cytotune for reprogramming. We thank the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Gene editing pipeline for generation of IRF5-/- 650 iPSCs and the Mass spectrometry 651 Facility at the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine for help with CyTOF experiments.
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00121-20
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/303035
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