Longitudinal association between cardiovascular risk factors and depression in young people: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.
Anderson, Rebecca Z
Cambridge University Press
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Chaplin, A., Daniels, N. F., Ples, D., Anderson, R. Z., Gregory-Jones, A., Jones, P., & Khandaker, G. (2021). Longitudinal association between cardiovascular risk factors and depression in young people: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.. Psychological medicine, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291721002488
Background: Depression is a common and serious mental illness that begins early in life. An association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and subsequent depression is clear in adults. We examined associations between individual CVD risk factors and depression in young people. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases from inception to 1 January 2020. We extracted data from cohort studies assessing the longitudinal association between CVD risk factors (body mass index (BMI), smoking, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein) and depression, measured using a validated tool in individuals with mean age 24 years or younger. Random effect meta-analysis was used to combine effect estimates from individual studies, including odds ratio (OR) for depression and standardised mean difference for depressive symptoms. Registration number: CRD42020172460. Results: Based on meta-analysis of seven studies, comprising 15753 participants, high BMI was associated with subsequent depression (pooled OR=1.61; 95% CI=1.21-2.14; I2=31%). Based on meta-analysis of eight studies, comprising 30539 participants, smoking was associated with subsequent depression (pooled OR=1.73; 95% CI=1.36-2.20; I2=74%). Low, but not high, systolic blood pressure was associated with increased risk of depression (pooled OR=3.32; 95% CI=1.68-6.55; I2=0%), although this was based on a small pooled high-risk sample of 893 participants. Generalisability may be limited as most studies were based in North America or Europe. Conclusions: Targeting childhood/adolescent smoking and obesity may be important for the prevention of both CVD and depression across the lifespan. Further research on other CVD risk factors including blood pressure and cholesterol in young people is required.
BMA Foundation; MQ; NIHR; MRC
Wellcome Trust (201486/Z/16/Z)
MQ: Transforming Mental Health (MQDS17\40)
BMA Foundation for Medical Research (Unknown)
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (via Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust (CPFT) (ARC core)
Embargo Lift Date
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291721002488
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/323437
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