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dc.contributor.authorBelykh, Igor
dc.contributor.authorBocian, Mateusz
dc.contributor.authorChampneys, Alan R
dc.contributor.authorDaley, Kevin
dc.contributor.authorJeter, Russell
dc.contributor.authorMacdonald, John HG
dc.contributor.authorMcRobie, Allan
dc.date.accessioned2022-01-04T14:32:15Z
dc.date.available2022-01-04T14:32:15Z
dc.date.issued2021-12-10
dc.date.submitted2021-02-23
dc.identifier.issn2041-1723
dc.identifier.others41467-021-27568-y
dc.identifier.other27568
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/331894
dc.description.abstractThe pedestrian-induced instability of the London Millennium Bridge is a widely used example of Kuramoto synchronisation. Yet, reviewing observational, experimental, and modelling evidence, we argue that increased coherence of pedestrians' foot placement is a consequence of, not a cause of the instability. Instead, uncorrelated pedestrians produce positive feedback, through negative damping on average, that can initiate significant lateral bridge vibration over a wide range of natural frequencies. We present a simple general formula that quantifies this effect, and illustrate it through simulation of three mathematical models, including one with strong propensity for synchronisation. Despite subtle effects of gait strategies in determining precise instability thresholds, our results show that average negative damping is always the trigger. More broadly, we describe an alternative to Kuramoto theory for emergence of coherent oscillations in nature; collective contributions from incoherent agents need not cancel, but can provide positive feedback on average, leading to global limit-cycle motion.
dc.languageen
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.subjectArticle
dc.subject/639/166/986
dc.subject/639/705/1041
dc.subject/639/766/25
dc.subjectarticle
dc.titleEmergence of the London Millennium Bridge instability without synchronisation.
dc.typeArticle
dc.date.updated2022-01-04T14:32:14Z
prism.issueIdentifier1
prism.publicationNameNat Commun
prism.volume12
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.79344
dcterms.dateAccepted2021-11-26
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1038/s41467-021-27568-y
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.contributor.orcidBelykh, Igor [0000-0002-5683-0754]
dc.contributor.orcidBocian, Mateusz [0000-0002-3539-5474]
dc.contributor.orcidDaley, Kevin [0000-0003-2652-1675]
dc.contributor.orcidMacdonald, John HG [0000-0002-8950-6678]
dc.contributor.orcidMcRobie, Allan [0000-0002-6610-5927]
dc.identifier.eissn2041-1723
pubs.funder-project-idNational Science Foundation (NSF) (DMS-1909924)
pubs.funder-project-idMinistry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Minobrnauka) (0729-2020-0036)
cam.issuedOnline2021-12-10


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