Jisc Publications Router

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Publications Router is an alerting service that automatically sends notifications about research articles to institutions' systems such as their repositories or CRISs. These notifications indicate, for example, that an article has been accepted for publication or that it has been published. They often include the articles themselves in the version agreed by the publisher, or they may just consist of metadata.

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 25269
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Risk factors for internalizing symptoms: The influence of empathy, theory of mind, and negative thinking processes.
    (Wiley, 2024-02-15) Konrad, Annika C; Förster, Katharina; Stretton, Jason; Dalgleish, Tim; Böckler-Raettig, Anne; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Singer, Tania; Kanske, Philipp; Konrad, Annika C [0000-0002-7263-9693]
    Internalizing symptoms such as elevated stress and sustained negative affect can be important warning signs for developing mental disorders. A recent theoretical framework suggests a complex interplay of empathy, theory of mind (ToM), and negative thinking processes as a crucial risk combination for internalizing symptoms. To disentangle these relationships, this study utilizes neural, behavioral, and self-report data to examine how the interplay between empathy, ToM, and negative thinking processes relates to stress and negative affect. We reanalyzed the baseline data of N = 302 healthy participants (57% female, Mage  = 40.52, SDage  = 9.30) who participated in a large-scale mental training study, the ReSource project. Empathy and ToM were assessed using a validated fMRI paradigm featuring naturalistic video stimuli and via self-report. Additional self-report scales were employed to measure internalizing symptoms (perceived stress, negative affect) and negative thinking processes (rumination and self-blame). Our results revealed linear associations of self-reported ToM and empathic distress with stress and negative affect. Also, both lower and higher, compared to average, activation in the anterior insula during empathic processing and in the middle temporal gyrus during ToM performance was significantly associated with internalizing symptoms. These associations were dependent on rumination and self-blame. Our findings indicate specific risk constellations for internalizing symptoms. Especially people with lower self-reported ToM and higher empathic distress may be at risk for more internalizing symptoms. Quadratic associations of empathy- and ToM-related brain activation with internalizing symptoms depended on negative thinking processes, suggesting differential effects of cognitive and affective functioning on internalizing symptoms. Using a multi-method approach, these findings advance current research by shedding light on which complex risk combinations of cognitive and affective functioning are relevant for internalizing symptoms.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Exploring the advances of single-cell RNA sequencing in thyroid cancer: a narrative review
    (Springer US, 2023-12-21) Tan, Joecelyn Kirani; Awuah, Wireko Andrew; Roy, Sakshi; Ferreira, Tomas; Ahluwalia, Arjun; Guggilapu, Saibaba; Javed, Mahnoor; Asyura, Muhammad Mikail Athif Zhafir; Adebusoye, Favour Tope; Ramamoorthy, Krishna; Paoletti, Emma; Abdul-Rahman, Toufik; Prykhodko, Olha; Ovechkin, Denys; Tan, Joecelyn Kirani [0009-0005-3648-6553]
    Thyroid cancer, a prevalent form of endocrine malignancy, has witnessed a substantial increase in occurrence in recent decades. To gain a comprehensive understanding of thyroid cancer at the single-cell level, this narrative review evaluates the applications of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) in thyroid cancer research. ScRNA-seq has revolutionised the identification and characterisation of distinct cell subpopulations, cell-to-cell communications, and receptor interactions, revealing unprecedented heterogeneity and shedding light on novel biomarkers for therapeutic discovery. These findings aid in the construction of predictive models on disease prognosis and therapeutic efficacy. Altogether, scRNA-seq has deepened our understanding of the tumour microenvironment immunologic insights, informing future studies in the development of effective personalised treatment for patients. Challenges and limitations of scRNA-seq, such as technical biases, financial barriers, and ethical concerns, are discussed. Advancements in computational methods, the advent of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL), and the importance of single-cell data sharing and collaborative efforts are highlighted. Future directions of scRNA-seq in thyroid cancer research include investigating intra-tumoral heterogeneity, integrating with other omics technologies, exploring the non-coding RNA landscape, and studying rare subtypes. Overall, scRNA-seq has transformed thyroid cancer research and holds immense potential for advancing personalised therapies and improving patient outcomes. Efforts to make this technology more accessible and cost-effective will be crucial to ensuring its widespread utilisation in healthcare.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Evaluating the impacts of a large-scale voluntary REDD+ project in Sierra Leone
    (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2024-01-04) Malan, Mandy; Carmenta, Rachel; Gsottbauer, Elisabeth; Hofman, Paul; Kontoleon, Andreas; Swinfield, Tom; Voors, Maarten; Carmenta, Rachel [0000-0001-8607-4147]; Hofman, Paul [0000-0002-4091-876X]; Kontoleon, Andreas [0000-0003-4769-898X]; Swinfield, Tom [0000-0001-9354-5090]; Voors, Maarten [0000-0001-5907-3253]
    Carbon offsets from the REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation) framework to protect forests are expected to see a 100-fold increase in market value by 2050. However, independent causal impact evaluations are scarce and only a few studies assess benefits to communities themselves, a core objective of REDD+. Following a pre-analysis plan, we use a before-after-control-intervention (BACI) framework to evaluate the impact of a large-scale voluntary REDD+ project in Sierra Leone—the Gola project. We use a panel of both satellite images and household surveys to provide causal evidence of the impact of the project on local deforestation rates and socioeconomic indicators over the first 5 yr of its implementation. We find that REDD+ slowed deforestation by 30% relative to control communities while not changing economic wellbeing and conservation attitudes. We find suggestive evidence that the programme increased the value of alternative income sources, by shifting labour away from forest-dependent farming activities. A cost-to-carbon calculation shows that REDD+ led to 340,000 tCO2 in avoided emissions per year, with an estimated cost of US$1.12 per averted tCO2. Our study contributes to developing an evidence base for voluntary REDD+ projects and offers a robust approach to carry out BACI assessments.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Clonal dynamics of haematopoiesis across the human lifespan.
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-06) Mitchell, Emily; Spencer Chapman, Michael; Williams, Nicholas; Dawson, Kevin J; Mende, Nicole; Calderbank, Emily F; Jung, Hyunchul; Mitchell, Thomas; Coorens, Tim HH; Spencer, David H; Machado, Heather; Lee-Six, Henry; Davies, Megan; Hayler, Daniel; Fabre, Margarete A; Mahbubani, Krishnaa; Abascal, Federico; Cagan, Alex; Vassiliou, George S; Baxter, Joanna; Martincorena, Inigo; Stratton, Michael R; Kent, David G; Chatterjee, Krishna; Parsy, Kourosh Saeb; Green, Anthony R; Nangalia, Jyoti; Laurenti, Elisa; Campbell, Peter J; Spencer Chapman, Michael [0000-0002-5320-8193]; Williams, Nicholas [0000-0003-3989-9167]; Mende, Nicole [0000-0002-5078-2333]; Calderbank, Emily F [0000-0002-9559-6593]; Coorens, Tim HH [0000-0002-5826-3554]; Lee-Six, Henry [0000-0003-4831-8088]; Mahbubani, Krishnaa [0000-0002-1327-2334]; Abascal, Federico [0000-0002-6201-1587]; Cagan, Alex [0000-0002-7857-4771]; Vassiliou, George S [0000-0003-4337-8022]; Martincorena, Inigo [0000-0003-1122-4416]; Stratton, Michael R [0000-0001-6035-153X]; Kent, David G [0000-0001-7871-8811]; Chatterjee, Krishna [0000-0002-2654-8854]; Parsy, Kourosh Saeb [0000-0002-0633-3696]; Nangalia, Jyoti [0000-0001-7122-4608]; Laurenti, Elisa [0000-0002-9917-9092]; Campbell, Peter J [0000-0002-3921-0510]
    Age-related change in human haematopoiesis causes reduced regenerative capacity1, cytopenias2, immune dysfunction3 and increased risk of blood cancer4-6, but the reason for such abrupt functional decline after 70 years of age remains unclear. Here we sequenced 3,579 genomes from single cell-derived colonies of haematopoietic cells across 10 human subjects from 0 to 81 years of age. Haematopoietic stem cells or multipotent progenitors (HSC/MPPs) accumulated a mean of 17 mutations per year after birth and lost 30 base pairs per year of telomere length. Haematopoiesis in adults less than 65 years of age was massively polyclonal, with high clonal diversity and a stable population of 20,000-200,000 HSC/MPPs contributing evenly to blood production. By contrast, haematopoiesis in individuals aged over 75 showed profoundly decreased clonal diversity. In each of the older subjects, 30-60% of haematopoiesis was accounted for by 12-18 independent clones, each contributing 1-34% of blood production. Most clones had begun their expansion before the subject was 40 years old, but only 22% had known driver mutations. Genome-wide selection analysis estimated that between 1 in 34 and 1 in 12 non-synonymous mutations were drivers, accruing at constant rates throughout life, affecting more genes than identified in blood cancers. Loss of the Y chromosome conferred selective benefits in males. Simulations of haematopoiesis, with constant stem cell population size and constant acquisition of driver mutations conferring moderate fitness benefits, entirely explained the abrupt change in clonal structure in the elderly. Rapidly decreasing clonal diversity is a universal feature of haematopoiesis in aged humans, underpinned by pervasive positive selection acting on many more genes than currently identified.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Single-molecule RNA sizing enables quantitative analysis of alternative transcription termination
    (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2024-02-24) Patiño-Guillén, Gerardo; Pešović, Jovan; Panić, Marko; Savić-Pavićević, Dušanka; Bošković, Filip; Keyser, Ulrich Felix; Bošković, Filip [0000-0001-7663-2408]; Keyser, Ulrich Felix [0000-0003-3188-5414]
    Transcription, a critical process in molecular biology, has found many applications in RNA synthesis, including mRNA vaccines and RNA therapeutics. However, current RNA characterization technologies suffer from amplification and enzymatic biases that lead to loss of native information. Here, we introduce a strategy to quantitatively study both transcription and RNA polymerase behaviour by sizing RNA with RNA nanotechnology and nanopores. To begin, we utilize T7 RNA polymerase to transcribe linear DNA lacking termination sequences. Surprisingly, we discover alternative transcription termination in the origin of replication sequence. Next, we employ circular DNA without transcription terminators to perform rolling circle transcription. This allows us to gain valuable insights into the processivity and transcription behaviour of RNA polymerase at the single-molecule level. Our work demonstrates how RNA nanotechnology and nanopores may be used in tandem for the direct and quantitative analysis of RNA transcripts. This methodology provides a promising pathway for accurate RNA structural mapping by enabling the study of full-length RNA transcripts at the single-molecule level.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    There and Back Again: Building Systems That Integrate, Interface, and Interact with the Human Body
    (Wiley, 2024-02-24) Boys, Alexander J; Boys, Alexander J [0000-0002-6488-7005]
    AbstractSince Dr. Theodor Schwann posed the extension of Cell Theory to mammals in 1839, scientists have dreamt up ways to interface with and influence the cells. Recently, considerable ground in this area is gained, particularly in the scope of bioelectronics. New advances in this area have provided with a means to record electrical activity from cells, examining neural firing or epithelial barrier integrity, and stimulate cells through applied electrical fields. Many of these applications utilize invasive implantation systems to perform this interaction in close proximity to the cells in question. Traditionally, the body's immune system fights back against these systems through the foreign body response, limiting the efficacy of long‐term interactions. New technologies in tissue engineering, biomaterials science, and bioelectronics offer the potential to circumvent the foreign body response and create stable long‐term biological interfaces. Looking ahead, the next advancements in the biomedical sciences can truly integrate, interface, and interact with the human body.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Sterilizing body‐territories: Understanding contemporary cases of forced sterilization in the United States and China
    (Wiley, 2024-02-23) Chaparro‐Buitrago, Julieta; Chaparro‐Buitrago, Julieta [0000-0003-4600-1685]
    AbstractIn the summer of 2020, shocking headlines reverberated across global media outlets, revealing harrowing stories of forced sterilizations and reproductive abuses committed against Uighurs in China and immigrant women in the United States. The simultaneity of these events sheds light on essential aspects of a transnational order characterized by mass surveillance and detention, a defining feature of diverse contemporary political regimes. This article explores how reproductive violence intertwines with systems of detention and mass surveillance through these two cases. I do so by weaving together the decolonial feminist framework of body‐territory and the principles of reproductive justice that allow for a nuanced examination of how the control of the reproductive lives of Uighur and immigrant women reinforce the mechanisms of exclusion and surveillance embedded in state infrastructures. The demand for the right to bear children and to parent them under dignified conditions, free from violence, is increasingly pressing in a world where reproduction has become an instrument of surveillance and containment. This article engages in an ethnographic exploration of electronic paper trails, adopting what Geiger and Ribes aptly termed “trace ethnography.”
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Quantifying Edge Sharpness on Stone Flakes: Comparing Mechanical and Micro-Geometric Definitions Across Multiple Raw Materials from Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania)
    (Springer US, 2022-12-07) Key, Alastair; Bartkowiak, Tomasz; Macdonald, Danielle A.; Mietlinski, Patryk; Gapinski, Bartosz; de la Torre, Ignacio; Stemp, W. James
    : In line with engineering research focusing on metal tools, techniques to record the attribute of ‘edge sharpness’ on stone tools can include both mechanical and micro-geometric approaches. Mechanically-defined sharpness techniques used in lithic studies are now well established and align with engineering research. The single micro-geometrically-defined technique—tip curvature—is novel relative to approaches used elsewhere, and has not explicitly been tested for its ability to describe the attribute of sharpness. Here, using experimental flakes produced on basalt, chert, and quartzite sourced at Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania), we investigate the relationship between tip curvature and the force and work required to initiate a cut. We do this using controlled cutting tests and analysis of high-resolution microCT scans. Results indicate cutting force and work to display significant dependent relationships with tip curvature, suggesting the latter to be an appropriate metric to record the sharpness of lithic tools. Differences in relationship strength were observed dependent on the measurement scales and edge distances used. Tip curvature is also demonstrated to distinguish between the sharpness of different raw materials. Our data also indicate the predictive relationship between tip curvature and cutting force/work to be one of the strongest yet identified between a stone tool morphological attribute and its cutting performance. Together, this study demonstrates tip curvature to be an appropriate attribute for describing the sharpness of a stone tool’s working edge in diverse raw material scenarios, and that it can be highly predictive of a stone tool’s functional performance.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Exploring the advances of single-cell RNA sequencing in thyroid cancer: a narrative review
    (Springer US, 2023-12-21) Tan, Joecelyn Kirani; Awuah, Wireko Andrew; Roy, Sakshi; Ferreira, Tomas; Ahluwalia, Arjun; Guggilapu, Saibaba; Javed, Mahnoor; Asyura, Muhammad Mikail Athif Zhafir; Adebusoye, Favour Tope; Ramamoorthy, Krishna; Paoletti, Emma; Abdul-Rahman, Toufik; Prykhodko, Olha; Ovechkin, Denys; Tan, Joecelyn Kirani [0009-0005-3648-6553]
    Thyroid cancer, a prevalent form of endocrine malignancy, has witnessed a substantial increase in occurrence in recent decades. To gain a comprehensive understanding of thyroid cancer at the single-cell level, this narrative review evaluates the applications of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) in thyroid cancer research. ScRNA-seq has revolutionised the identification and characterisation of distinct cell subpopulations, cell-to-cell communications, and receptor interactions, revealing unprecedented heterogeneity and shedding light on novel biomarkers for therapeutic discovery. These findings aid in the construction of predictive models on disease prognosis and therapeutic efficacy. Altogether, scRNA-seq has deepened our understanding of the tumour microenvironment immunologic insights, informing future studies in the development of effective personalised treatment for patients. Challenges and limitations of scRNA-seq, such as technical biases, financial barriers, and ethical concerns, are discussed. Advancements in computational methods, the advent of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL), and the importance of single-cell data sharing and collaborative efforts are highlighted. Future directions of scRNA-seq in thyroid cancer research include investigating intra-tumoral heterogeneity, integrating with other omics technologies, exploring the non-coding RNA landscape, and studying rare subtypes. Overall, scRNA-seq has transformed thyroid cancer research and holds immense potential for advancing personalised therapies and improving patient outcomes. Efforts to make this technology more accessible and cost-effective will be crucial to ensuring its widespread utilisation in healthcare.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Hamiltonian birefringence and Born-Infeld limits
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2024-02-23) Mezincescu, Luca; Russo, Jorge G; Townsend, Paul K
    Abstract Using Hamiltonian methods, we find six relativistic theories of nonlinear electrodynamics for which plane wave perturbations about a constant uniform background are not birefringent. All have the same conformal strong-field limit to Bialynicki-Birula (BB) electrodynamics, but only four avoid superluminal propagation: Born-Infeld (BI), its non-conformal “extreme” limits (electric and magnetic) and the conformal BB limit. The quadratic dispersion relation of BI is shown to degenerate in the extreme limits to a pair of linear relations, which become identical in the BB limit.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Trial protocol for the Building Resilience through Socio-Emotional Training (ReSET) programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a new transdiagnostic preventative intervention for adolescents
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2024-02-23) Viding, Essi; Lloyd, Alex; Law, Roslyn; Martin, Peter; Lucas, Laura; Wu, Tom Chin-Han; Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Midgley, Nick; Veenstra, René; Smith, Jaime; Ly, Lili; Bird, Geoffrey; Murphy, Jennifer; Plans, David; Munafo, Marcus; Penton-Voak, Ian; Deighton, Jessica; Richards, Kathleen; Richards, Mya; Fearon, Pasco; Viding, Essi [0000-0001-8468-8874]
    Abstract Background Adolescence is a period of heightened vulnerability to developing mental health problems, and rates of mental health disorder in this age group have increased in the last decade. Preventing mental health problems developing before they become entrenched, particularly in adolescents who are at high risk, is an important research and clinical target. Here, we report the protocol for the trial of the ‘Building Resilience through Socioemotional Training’ (ReSET) intervention. ReSET is a new, preventative intervention that incorporates individual-based emotional training techniques and group-based social and communication skills training. We take a transdiagnostic approach, focusing on emotion processing and social mechanisms implicated in the onset and maintenance of various forms of psychopathology. Methods A cluster randomised allocation design is adopted with randomisation at the school year level. Five-hundred and forty adolescents (aged 12–14) will be randomised to either receive the intervention or not (passive control). The intervention is comprised of weekly sessions over an 8-week period, supplemented by two individual sessions. The primary outcomes, psychopathology symptoms and mental wellbeing, will be assessed pre- and post-intervention, and at a 1-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes are task-based assessments of emotion processing, social network data based on peer nominations, and subjective ratings of social relationships. These measures will be taken at baseline, post-intervention and 1-year follow-up. A subgroup of participants and stakeholders will be invited to take part in focus groups to assess the acceptability of the intervention. Discussion This project adopts a theory-based approach to the development of a new intervention designed to target the close connections between young people’s emotions and their interpersonal relationships. By embedding the intervention within a school setting and using a cluster-randomised design, we aim to develop and test a feasible, scalable intervention to prevent the onset of psychopathology in adolescence. Trial registration ISRCTN88585916. Trial registration date: 20/04/2023.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    How Cultural Transmission Through Objects Impacts Inferences About Cultural Evolution
    (Springer US, 2023-02-02) Crema, Enrico R.; Bortolini, Eugenio; Lake, Mark; Crema, Enrico R. [0000-0001-6727-5138]; Bortolini, Eugenio [0000-0001-6751-5680]; Lake, Mark [0000-0002-8347-0694]
    The cross-fertilisation between biological and cultural evolution has led to an extensive borrowing of key concepts, theories, and statistical methods for studying temporal variation in the frequency of cultural variants. Archaeologists have been among the front-runners of those engaging with this endeavour, and the last 2 decades have seen a number of case studies where modes of social learning were inferred from the changing frequencies of artefacts. Here, we employ a simulation model to review and examine under-discussed assumptions shared by many of these applications on the nature of what constitutes the ‘population’ under study. We specifically ask (1) whether cultural transmission via ‘objects’ (i.e. public manifestations of cultural traits) generates distinct patterns from those expected from direct transmission between individuals and (2) whether basing inference on the frequency of objects rather than on the frequency of mental representations underlying the production of those objects may lead to biased interpretations. Our results show that the rate at which ideational cultural traits are embedded in objects, and shared as such, has a measurable impact on how we infer cultural transmission processes when analysing frequency-based archaeological data. At the same time, when cultural transmission is entirely mediated by the material representation of ideas, we argue that copying error should be interpreted as a two-step process which may occur in either one or both of embedding information in objects and retrieving it from them.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Comparative analysis of tuberculin and defined antigen skin tests for detection of bovine tuberculosis in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Haryana state, India.
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2024-02-23) Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, Tarun; Jangir, Babu Lal; Singh, Mahavir; Arora, Devan; Bangar, Yogesh; Conlan, Andrew; Vordermeier, Martin; Bakker, Douwe; Byregowda, SM; Srinivasan, Sreenidhi; Kapur, Vivek; Jindal, Naresh
    BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic disease that results from infection with any member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Infected animals are typically diagnosed with tuberculin-based intradermal skin tests according to World Organization of Animal Health which are presently in use. However, tuberculin is not suitable for use in BCG-vaccinated animals due to a high rate of false-positive reactions. Peptide-based defined skin test (DST) antigens have been identified using antigens (ESAT-6, CFP-10 and Rv3615c) which are absent from BCG, but their performance in buffaloes remains unknown. To assess the comparative performance of DST with the tuberculin-based single intradermal test (SIT) and the single intradermal comparative cervical test (SICCT), we screened 543 female buffaloes from 49 organized dairy farms in two districts of Haryana state in India. RESULTS: We found that 37 (7%), 4 (1%) and 18 (3%) buffaloes were reactors with the SIT, SICCT and DST tests, respectively. Of the 37 SIT reactors, four were positive with SICCT and 12 were positive with the DST. The results show that none of the animals tested positive with all three tests, and 6 DST positive animals were SIT negative. Together, a total of 43 animals were reactors with SIT, DST, or both, and the two assays showed moderate agreement (Cohen's Kappa 0.41; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.23, 0.59). In contrast, only slight agreement (Cohen's Kappa 0.18; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.34) was observed between SIT and SICCT. Using a Bayesian latent class model, we estimated test specificities of 96.5% (95% CI, 92-99%), 99.7% (95% CI: 98-100%) and 99.0% (95% CI: 97-100%) for SIT, SICCT and DST, respectively, but considerably lower sensitivities of 58% (95% CI: 35-87%), 9% (95% CI: 3-21%), and 34% (95% CI: 18-55%) albeit with broad and overlapping credible intervals. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our investigation suggests that DST has a test specificity comparable with SICCT, and sensitivity intermediate between SIT and SICCT for the identification of buffaloes suspected of tuberculosis. Our study highlights an urgent need for future well-powered trials with detailed necropsy, with immunological and microbiological profiling of reactor and non-reactor animals to better define the underlying factors for the large observed discrepancies in assay performance, particularly between SIT and SICCT.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Correction to: Exploring the advances of single‑cell RNA sequencing in thyroid cancer: a narrative review
    (Springer US, 2024-02-23) Tan, Joecelyn Kirani; Awuah, Wireko Andrew; Roy, Sakshi; Ferreira, Tomas; Ahluwalia, Arjun; Guggilapu, Saibaba; Javed, Mahnoor; Asyura, Muhammad Mikail Athif Zhafir; Adebusoye, Favour Tope; Ramamoorthy, Krishna; Paoletti, Emma; Abdul-Rahman, Toufik; Prykhodko, Olha; Ovechkin, Denys; Tan, Joecelyn Kirani [0009-0005-3648-6553]
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    In Memoriam Sir Roy Yorke Calne December 30th, 1930 to January 6th, 2024
    (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-02-01) Jamieson, Neville
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    A modern, rapid and simple investigation of Ampère’s law
    (IOP Publishing, 2024-03-01) Cicuta, Pietro; Organtini, Giovanni; Cicuta, Pietro [0000-0002-9193-8496]; Organtini, Giovanni [0000-0002-3229-0781]
    Abstract Classical physics results are often taught purely from the theoretical side. Key results, especially in electromagnetism, are typically not explored experimentally, and in applications students are then expected to leap straight into more complex scenarios that make use of these principles in electronics, sensors and instrumentation. This is unfortunate because not all individuals are equally able to learn well purely from the mathematical angle, and even those who do are not exposed to exploring the magnitude of competing effects, for example isolating a particular magnetic field signal from the background of the Earth’s field. An experiment is presented here to test Ampère’s law with a setup that can be assembled out of everyday materials with minimal components—a smartphone, a DC power supply, wires—in a procedure that can be completed in just a few hours. The data from the three magnetic field sensors of the phones, together with the gyroscope sensors providing position, are recorded and numerically integrated. The experiment is also demonstrated using sensors collected by an Arduino board instead of a smartphone. The experiment allows to measure the net current carried by wires inside the closed path over which the magnetic field is integrated, i.e. Ampère’s law. This experimental approach to exploring Ampère’s Law can be adapted towards high school or university demonstrations, depending on the level of accuracy and detail that one aims to pursue.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Managing Asymmetries for Data Mobilization under Digital Transformation
    (Wiley, 2024-02-23) Kazantsev, Nikolai; Batolas, Dimitrios; White, Leroy; Kazantsev, Nikolai [0000-0002-6812-8786]; Batolas, Dimitrios [0000-0002-4011-506X]; White, Leroy [0000-0001-6827-1323]
    AbstractResource mobilization is a significant challenge for firms seeking survival and competitive advantage, especially in the context of digital transformation. Data has emerged as a vital resource, but its intangible nature adds complexity to the interactions between resource holders and seekers. This paper aims to address the gaps in understanding data resource mobilization by integrating perspectives on information, dependence, and orientation asymmetry using a social exchange perspective. The study focuses on the regulated animal healthcare industry, where a large established organization acts as the resource holder, universities act as intermediaries, and startups act as resource seekers. Through three years of data collection, the study finds that the context is rich in all three types of asymmetries and characterized by high uncertainty surrounding data as a resource. Actors engage in direct social exchanges to address information asymmetries and in generalized exchanges through intermediaries to deal with dependence and orientation asymmetries. The study contributes to theory by providing insights into the complex dynamics of resource mobilization in the context of digital transformation and proposes practical implications for managing multiple asymmetries and mobilizing data effectively for firm performance in regulated environments.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    cGAS-STING signalling regulates microglial chemotaxis in genome instability
    (Oxford University Press, 2023-12-12) Talbot, Emily J; Joshi, Lisha; Thornton, Peter; Dezfouli, Mahya; Tsafou, Kalliopi; Perkinton, Michael; Khoronenkova, Svetlana V; Khoronenkova, Svetlana V [0000-0002-7439-9320]
    Defective DNA damage signalling and repair is a hallmark of age-related and genetic neurodegenerative disease. One mechanism implicated in disease progression is DNA damage-driven neuroinflammation, which is largely mediated by tissue-resident immune cells, microglia. Here, we utilise human microglia-like cell models of persistent DNA damage and ATM kinase deficiency to investigate how genome instability shapes microglial function. We demonstrate that upon DNA damage the cytosolic DNA sensing cGAS-STING axis drives chronic inflammation and a robust chemokine response, exemplified by production of CCL5 and CXCL10. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that cell migratory pathways were highly enriched upon IFN-β treatment of human iPSC-derived microglia, indicating that the chemokine response to DNA damage mirrors type I interferon signalling. Furthermore, we find that STING deletion leads to a defect in microglial chemotaxis under basal conditions and upon ATM kinase loss. Overall, this work provides mechanistic insights into cGAS-STING-dependent neuroinflammatory mechanisms and consequences of genome instability in the central nervous system.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Remodelling selection to optimise disease forecasts and policies
    (IOP Publishing, 2024-02-23) Gomes, Gabriela M; Blagborough, Andrew M; Langwig, Kate E; Ringwald, Beate; Gomes, Gabriela M [0000-0002-1454-4979]; Ringwald, Beate [0000-0002-3950-3145]
    Abstract Mathematical models are increasingly adopted for setting disease prevention and control targets. As model-informed policies are implemented, however, the inaccuracies of some forecasts become apparent, for example overprediction of infection burdens and intervention impacts. Here, we attribute these discrepancies to methodological limitations in capturing the heterogeneities of real-world systems. The mechanisms underpinning risk factors of infection and their interactions determine individual propensities to acquire disease. These factors are potentially so numerous and complex that to attain a full mechanistic description is likely unfeasible. To contribute constructively to the development of health policies, model developers either leave factors out (reductionism) or adopt a broader but coarse description (holism). In our view, predictive capacity requires holistic descriptions of heterogeneity which are currently underutilised in infectious disease epidemiology, in comparison to other population disciplines, such as non-communicable disease epidemiology, demography, ecology and evolution.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Ethnographic (dis) locations: An approach for studying marginalisation in the context of socio-economic change
    (SAGE Publications, 2022-03-01) Islam, Asiya; Islam, Asiya [0000-0002-1983-9944]
    This paper revisits discussions about the pursuit of a singular location for ethnographic research. Citing challenges to the fixity of location, from circulation of people to the impossibility of containing digital worlds, scholars have proposed multi-sited, multi-scalar, multi-modal and multi-sensorial ethnographies, advocating that the researcher ‘follow the actor’. Drawing upon these innovations, this paper traces the affects generated in the process of following the actors as well as the consequent blurring of the division between the researcher and the researched so that they together constitute the category of ‘actors’ who co-produce the field. Using the example of an ethnography with young lower middle class women in Delhi, this paper deploys the researcher’s experience of dislocation or unexpected shuttling in the field to develop ‘dislocation’ as a methodological and analytical strategy for studying marginalisation in the context of socio-economic change by embracing intersubjective relations, affects and partiality of knowledge in ethnographic research.