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  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Reimagine fire science for the anthropocene
    (Oxford University Press, 2022-08-04) Shuman, Jacquelyn K; Balch, Jennifer K; Barnes, Rebecca T; Higuera, Philip E; Roos, Christopher I; Schwilk, Dylan W; Stavros, E Natasha; Banerjee, Tirtha; Bela, Megan M; Bendix, Jacob; Bertolino, Sandro; Bililign, Solomon; Bladon, Kevin D; Brando, Paulo; Breidenthal, Robert E; Buma, Brian; Calhoun, Donna; Carvalho, Leila M V; Cattau, Megan E; Cawley, Kaelin M; Chandra, Sudeep; Chipman, Melissa L; Cobian-Iñiguez, Jeanette; Conlisk, Erin; Coop, Jonathan D; Cullen, Alison; Davis, Kimberley T; Dayalu, Archana; De Sales, Fernando; Dolman, Megan; Ellsworth, Lisa M; Franklin, Scott; Guiterman, Christopher H; Hamilton, Matthew; Hanan, Erin J; Hansen, Winslow D; Hantson, Stijn; Harvey, Brian J; Holz, Andrés; Huang, Tao; Hurteau, Matthew D; Ilangakoon, Nayani T; Jennings, Megan; Jones, Charles; Klimaszewski-Patterson, Anna; Kobziar, Leda N; Kominoski, John; Kosovic, Branko; Krawchuk, Meg A; Laris, Paul; Leonard, Jackson; Loria-Salazar, S Marcela; Lucash, Melissa; Mahmoud, Hussam; Margolis, Ellis; Maxwell, Toby; McCarty, Jessica L; McWethy, David B; Meyer, Rachel S; Miesel, Jessica R; Moser, W Keith; Nagy, R Chelsea; Niyogi, Dev; Palmer, Hannah M; Pellegrini, Adam; Poulter, Benjamin; Robertson, Kevin; Rocha, Adrian V; Sadegh, Mojtaba; Santos, Fernanda; Scordo, Facundo; Sexton, Joseph O; Sharma, A Surjalal; Smith, Alistair M S; Soja, Amber J; Still, Christopher; Swetnam, Tyson; Syphard, Alexandra D; Tingley, Morgan W; Tohidi, Ali; Trugman, Anna T; Turetsky, Merritt; Varner, J Morgan; Wang, Yuhang; Whitman, Thea; Yelenik, Stephanie; Zhang, Xuan; Shuman, Jacquelyn K [0000-0003-2588-2161]; Barnes, Rebecca T [0000-0001-6385-1062]; Higuera, Philip E [0000-0001-5396-9956]; Roos, Christopher I [0000-0001-8754-7655]; Schwilk, Dylan W [0000-0003-3833-1932]; Stavros, E Natasha [0000-0001-6657-7310]; Banerjee, Tirtha [0000-0002-5153-9474]; Bela, Megan M [0000-0002-3998-9990]; Bendix, Jacob [0000-0002-5125-0347]; Bertolino, Sandro [0000-0002-1063-8281]; Bililign, Solomon [0000-0001-5064-7695]; Bladon, Kevin D [0000-0002-4182-6883]; Brando, Paulo [0000-0001-8952-7025]; Breidenthal, Robert E [0000-0002-5050-6267]; Buma, Brian [0000-0003-2402-7737]; Carvalho, Leila M V [0000-0002-8662-1953]; Cattau, Megan E [0000-0003-2164-3809]; Cawley, Kaelin M [0000-0002-0443-0070]; Chandra, Sudeep [0000-0003-1724-5154]; Chipman, Melissa L [0000-0002-6872-8829]; Cobian-Iñiguez, Jeanette [0000-0002-5184-0363]; Conlisk, Erin [0000-0002-4049-4805]; Coop, Jonathan D [0000-0002-3930-340X]; Cullen, Alison [0000-0003-2389-859X]; Davis, Kimberley T [0000-0001-9727-374X]; Dayalu, Archana [0000-0001-8663-9646]; De Sales, Fernando [0000-0002-3420-9924]; Dolman, Megan [0000-0002-4084-8378]; Ellsworth, Lisa M [0000-0001-7232-2656]; Franklin, Scott [0000-0003-3922-8857]; Guiterman, Christopher H [0000-0002-9706-9332]; Hamilton, Matthew [0000-0003-0509-4467]; Hanan, Erin J [0000-0001-6568-2936]; Hansen, Winslow D [0000-0003-3868-9416]; Hantson, Stijn [0000-0003-4607-9204]; Harvey, Brian J [0000-0002-5902-4862]; Holz, Andrés [0000-0002-8587-2603]; Huang, Tao [0000-0001-9004-6130]; Hurteau, Matthew D [0000-0001-8457-8974]; Ilangakoon, Nayani T [0000-0002-6607-0605]; Jennings, Megan [0000-0002-3707-851X]; Jones, Charles [0000-0003-4808-6977]; Klimaszewski-Patterson, Anna [0000-0001-7765-8802]; Kobziar, Leda N [0000-0002-5882-8498]; Kominoski, John [0000-0002-0978-3326]; Kosovic, Branko [0000-0002-1746-0746]; Krawchuk, Meg A [0000-0002-3240-3117]; Laris, Paul [0000-0001-7021-0853]; Leonard, Jackson [0000-0002-1251-3474]; Lucash, Melissa [0000-0003-1509-3273]; Mahmoud, Hussam [0000-0002-3106-6067]; Margolis, Ellis [0000-0002-0595-9005]; McCarty, Jessica L [0000-0002-3333-3931]; McWethy, David B [0000-0003-3879-4865]; Meyer, Rachel S [0000-0002-4907-5797]; Miesel, Jessica R [0000-0001-7446-464X]; Moser, W Keith [0000-0001-8617-5490]; Nagy, R Chelsea [0000-0002-7168-3289]; Palmer, Hannah M [0000-0001-5051-7313]; Pellegrini, Adam [0000-0003-0418-4129]; Poulter, Benjamin [0000-0002-9493-8600]; Robertson, Kevin [0000-0001-7266-6272]; Rocha, Adrian V [0000-0002-4618-2407]; Sadegh, Mojtaba [0000-0003-1775-5445]; Santos, Fernanda [0000-0001-9155-5623]; Scordo, Facundo [0000-0001-6182-7368]; Sharma, A Surjalal [0000-0002-8842-0100]; Smith, Alistair M S [0000-0003-0071-9958]; Soja, Amber J [0000-0001-8637-3040]; Still, Christopher [0000-0002-8295-4494]; Swetnam, Tyson [0000-0002-6639-7181]; Syphard, Alexandra D [0000-0003-3070-0596]; Tingley, Morgan W [0000-0002-1477-2218]; Tohidi, Ali [0000-0001-7511-9274]; Trugman, Anna T [0000-0002-7903-9711]; Turetsky, Merritt [0000-0003-0155-8666]; Varner, J Morgan [0000-0003-3781-5839]; Wang, Yuhang [0000-0002-7290-2551]; Whitman, Thea [0000-0003-2269-5598]; Yelenik, Stephanie [0000-0002-9011-0769]; Zhang, Xuan [0000-0003-1548-8021]
    Fire is an integral component of ecosystems globally and a tool that humans have harnessed for millennia. Altered fire regimes are a fundamental cause and consequence of global change, impacting people and the biophysical systems on which they depend. As part of the newly emerging Anthropocene, marked by human-caused climate change and radical changes to ecosystems, fire danger is increasing, and fires are having increasingly devastating impacts on human health, infrastructure, and ecosystem services. Increasing fire danger is a vexing problem that requires deep transdisciplinary, trans-sector, and inclusive partnerships to address. Here, we outline barriers and opportunities in the next generation of fire science and provide guidance for investment in future research. We synthesize insights needed to better address the long-standing challenges of innovation across disciplines to (i) promote coordinated research efforts; (ii) embrace different ways of knowing and knowledge generation; (iii) promote exploration of fundamental science; (iv) capitalize on the “firehose” of data for societal benefit; and (v) integrate human and natural systems into models across multiple scales. Fire science is thus at a critical transitional moment. We need to shift from observation and modeled representations of varying components of climate, people, vegetation, and fire to more integrative and predictive approaches that support pathways toward mitigating and adapting to our increasingly flammable world, including the utilization of fire for human safety and benefit. Only through overcoming institutional silos and accessing knowledge across diverse communities can we effectively undertake research that improves outcomes in our more fiery future.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Musical works are mind-independent artifacts
    (Springer Netherlands, 2023-12-18) Mikalonytė, Elzė Sigutė; Mikalonytė, Elzė Sigutė [0000-0002-3047-7729]
    Realism about musical works is often tied to some type of Platonism. Nominalism, which posits that musical works exist and that they are concrete objects, goes with ontological realism much less often than Platonism: there is a long tradition which holds human-created objects (artifacts) to be mind-dependent. Musical Platonism leads to the well-known paradox of the impossibility of creating abstract objects, and so it has been suggested that only some form of nominalism becoming dominant in the ontology of art could cause a great change in the field and open up new possibilities. This paper aims to develop a new metaontological view starting from the widely accepted claim that musical works are created. It contends that musical works must be concrete and created objects of some sort, but, nevertheless, they are mind-independent, and we should take the revisionary methodological stance. Although musical works are artifacts, what people think about them does not determine what musical works are. Musical works are similar to natural objects in the following sense: semantic externalism applies to the term ‘musical work’ because, firstly, they possess a shared nature, and, secondly, we can be mistaken about what they are.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Study of B c + → χ c π + decays
    (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2024-02-22) Aaij, R.; Abdelmotteleb, A. S. W.; Abellan Beteta, C.; Abudinén, F.; Ackernley, T.; Adefisoye, A. A.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adlarson, P.; Agapopoulou, C.; Aidala, C. A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Akiba, K.; Albicocco, P.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Alfonso Albero, A.; Aliouche, Z.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Amalric, R.; Amato, S.; Amey, J. L.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andersson, M.; Andreianov, A.; Andreola, P.; Andreotti, M.; Andreou, D.; Anelli, A.; Ao, D.; Archilli, F.; Argenton, M.; Arguedas Cuendis, S.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Atzeni, M.; Audurier, B.; Bacher, D.; Bachiller Perea, I.; Bachmann, S.; Bachmayer, M.; Back, J. J.; Baladron Rodriguez, P.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Baptista de Souza Leite, J.; Barbetti, M.; Barbosa, I. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bartolini, M.; Bartz, J.; Baryshnikov, F.; Basels, J. M.; Bassi, G.; Batsukh, B.; Battig, A.; Bay, A.; Beck, A.; Becker, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I. B.; Beiter, A.; Belin, S.; Bellee, V.; Belous, K.; Belov, I.; Belyaev, I.; Benane, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Ben-Haim, E.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bernet Andres, S.; Bertella, C.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bex, J.; Bezshyiko, Ia.; Bhom, J.; Bieker, M. S.; Biesuz, N. V.; Billoir, P.; Biolchini, A.; Birch, M.; Bishop, F. C. R.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blank, J. E.; Blusk, S.; Bocharnikov, V.; Boelhauve, J. A.; Boente Garcia, O.; Boettcher, T.; Bohare, A.; Boldyrev, A.; Bolognani, C. S.; Bolzonella, R.; Bondar, N.; Borgato, F.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Borsuk, J. T.; Bouchiba, S. A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyer, A.; Bozzi, C.; Bradley, M. J.; Brea Rodriguez, A.; Breer, N.; Brodzicka, J.; Brossa Gonzalo, A.; Brown, J.; Brundu, D.; Buchanan, E.; Buonaura, A.; Buonincontri, L.; Burke, A. T.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Butkevich, A.; Butter, J. S.; Buytaert, J.; Byczynski, W.; Cadeddu, S.; Cai, H.; Calabrese, R.; Calefice, L.; Cali, S.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Cambon Bouzas, J.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Campoverde Quezada, A. F.; Capelli, S.; Capriotti, L.; Caravaca-Mora, R.; Carbone, A.; Carcedo Salgado, L.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carus, L.; Casais Vidal, A.; Caspary, R.; Casse, G.; Castro Godinez, J.; Cattaneo, M.; Cavallero, G.; Cavallini, V.; Celani, S.; Cerasoli, J.; Cervenkov, D.; Cesare, S.; Chadwick, A. J.; Chahrour, I.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, C.; Chen, S.; Chen, Z.; Chernov, A.; Chernyshenko, S.; Chobanova, V.; Cholak, S.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Chubykin, A.; Chulikov, V.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Cifra, P.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Cobbledick, J. L.; Cocha Toapaxi, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocariu, L.; Collins, P.; Colombo, T.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Congedo, L.; Contu, A.; Cooke, N.; Corredoira, I.; Correia, A.; Corti, G.; Cottee Meldrum, J. J.; Couturier, B.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Curras Rivera, E.; Currie, R.; Da Silva, C. L.; Dadabaev, S.; Dai, L.; Dai, X.; Dall’Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; D’Ambrosio, C.; Daniel, J.; Danilina, A.; d’Argent, P.; Davidson, A.; Davies, J. E.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Angelis, C.; De Benedetti, F.; de Boer, J.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Freitas Carneiro Da Graca, U.; De Lucia, E.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, D.; De Simone, P.; De Vellis, F.; de Vries, J. A.; Debernardis, F.; Decamp, D.; Dedu, V.; Del Buono, L.; Delaney, B.; Dembinski, H.-P.; Deng, J.; Denysenko, V.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Nezza, P.; Diachkov, I.; Didenko, S.; Ding, S.; Dobishuk, V.; Docheva, A. D.; Dolmatov, A.; Dong, C.; Donohoe, A. M.; Dordei, F.; dos Reis, A. C.; Dowling, A. D.; Downes, A. G.; Duan, W.; Duda, P.; Dudek, M. W.; Dufour, L.; Duk, V.; Durante, P.; Duras, M. M.; Durham, J. M.; Durmus, O. D.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Eckstein, E.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, A.; Egorychev, V.; Eisenhardt, S.; Ejopu, E.; Ek-In, S.; Eklund, L.; Elashri, M.; Ellbracht, J.; Ely, S.; Ene, A.; Epple, E.; Escher, S.; Eschle, J.; Esen, S.; Evans, T.; Fabiano, F.; Falcao, L. N.; Fan, Y.; Fang, B.; Fantini, L.; Faria, M.; Farmer, K.; Fazzini, D.; Felkowski, L.; Feng, M.; Feo, M.; Fernandez Gomez, M.; Fernez, A. D.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferreres Sole, S.; Ferrillo, M.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiorini, M.; Fischer, K. M.; Fitzgerald, D. S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fleuret, F.; Fontana, M.; Foreman, L. F.; Forty, R.; Foulds-Holt, D.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Frank, M.; Franzoso, E.; Frau, G.; Frei, C.; Friday, D. A.; Fu, J.; Fuehring, Q.; Fujii, Y.; Fulghesu, T.; Gabriel, E.; Galati, G.; Galati, M. D.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, H.; Gao, R.; Gao, Y.; Garau, M.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; Garcia Moreno, P.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garg, K. G.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Geertsema, R. E.; Gerken, L. L.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghorbanimoghaddam, Z.; Giambastiani, L.; Giasemis, F. I.; Gibson, V.; Giemza, H. K.; Gilman, A. L.; Giovannetti, M.; Gioventù, A.; Gironella Gironell, P.; Giugliano, C.; Giza, M. A.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Glaser, F. C.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golobardes, E.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fernandez, S.; Goncalves Abrantes, F.; Goncerz, M.; Gong, G.; Gooding, J. A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Grabowski, J. P.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Grazette, L.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A. T.; Greeven, L. M.; Grieser, N. A.; Grillo, L.; Gromov, S.; Gu, C.; Guarise, M.; Guittiere, M.; Guliaeva, V.; Günther, P. A.; Guseinov, A.-K.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Y.; Gys, T.; Habermann, K.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haimberger, J.; Hajheidari, M.; Halvorsen, M. M.; Hamilton, P. M.; Hammerich, J.; Han, Q.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Hao, L.; Harnew, N.; Harrison, T.; Hartmann, M.; He, J.; Heijhoff, K.; Hemmer, F.; Henderson, C.; Henderson, R. D. L.; Hennequin, A. M.; Hennessy, K.; Henry, L.; Herd, J.; Herdieckerhoff, J.; Herrero Gascon, P.; Heuel, J.; Hicheur, A.; Hijano Mendizabal, G.; Hill, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Horswill, J.; Hou, R.; Hou, Y.; Howarth, N.; Hu, J.; Hu, W.; Hu, X.; Huang, W.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunter, R. J.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Ilin, D.; Ilten, P.; Inglessi, A.; Iniukhin, A.; Ishteev, A.; Ivshin, K.; Jacobsson, R.; Jage, H.; Jaimes Elles, S. J.; Jakobsen, S.; Jans, E.; Jashal, B. K.; Jawahery, A.; Jevtic, V.; Jiang, E.; Jiang, X.; Jiang, Y.; Jiang, Y. J.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Jones, T. P.; Joshi, S.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Juszczak, I.; Kaminaris, D.; Kandybei, S.; Kang, Y.; Karacson, M.; Karpenkov, D.; Karpov, M.; Kauniskangas, A.; Kautz, J. W.; Keizer, F.; Keller, D. M.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Kharisova, A.; Kholodenko, S.; Khreich, G.; Kirn, T.; Kirsebom, V. S.; Kitouni, O.; Klaver, S.; Kleijne, N.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kmiec, M. R.; Koliiev, S.; Kolk, L.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Kopciewicz, P.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kostiuk, I.; Kot, O.; Kotriakhova, S.; Kozachuk, A.; Kravchenko, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreps, M.; Kretzschmar, S.; Krokovny, P.; Krupa, W.; Krzemien, W.; Kubat, J.; Kubis, S.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kulikova, E.; Kupsc, A.; Kutsenko, B. K.; Lacarrere, D.; Lai, A.; Lampis, A.; Lancierini, D.; Landesa Gomez, C.; Lane, J. J.; Lane, R.; Langenbruch, C.; Langer, J.; Lantwin, O.; Latham, T.; Lazzari, F.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; Lee, S. H.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Legotin, S.; Lehuraux, M.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, A.; Li, H.; Li, K.; Li, L.; Li, P.; Li, P.-R.; Li, S.; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Lian, Z.; Liang, X.; Lin, C.; Lin, T.; Lindner, R.; Lisovskyi, V.; Litvinov, R.; Liu, F. L.; Liu, G.; Liu, K.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. L.; Lobo Salvia, A.; Loi, A.; Lomba Castro, J.; Long, T.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez Huertas, A.; López Soliño, S.; Lovell, G. H.; Lucarelli, C.; Lucchesi, D.; Luchuk, S.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Lukashenko, V.; Luo, Y.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lynch, K.; Lyu, X.-R.; Ma, G. M.; Ma, R.; Maccolini, S.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Mack, B. M.; Mackay, I.; Mackey, L. M.; Madhan Mohan, L. R.; Madurai, M. M.; Maevskiy, A.; Magdalinski, D.; Maisuzenko, D.; Majewski, M. W.; Malczewski, J. J.; Malde, S.; Malecki, B.; Malentacca, L.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mancuso, C.; Manera Escalero, R.; Manuzzi, D.; Marangotto, D.; Marchand, J. F.; Marchevski, R.; Marconi, U.; Mariani, S.; Marin Benito, C.; Marks, J.; Marshall, A. M.; Marshall, P. J.; Martelli, G.; Martellotti, G.; Martinazzoli, L.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Massafferri, A.; Materok, M.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Matiunin, V.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mattioli, K. R.; Mauri, A.; Maurice, E.; Mauricio, J.; Mayencourt, P.; Mazurek, M.; McCann, M.; Mcconnell, L.; McGrath, T. H.; McHugh, N. T.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, G.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Meyer Garcia, L.; Miao, D.; Miao, H.; Mikhasenko, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minotti, A.; Minucci, E.; Miralles, T.; Mitreska, B.; Mitzel, D. S.; Modak, A.; Mödden, A.; Mohammed, R. A.; Moise, R. D.; Mokhnenko, S.; Mombächer, T.; Monk, M.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morcillo Gomez, A.; Morello, G.; Morello, M. J.; Morgenthaler, M. P.; Morris, A. B.; Morris, A. G.; Mountain, R.; Mu, H.; Mu, Z. M.; Muhammad, E.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Müller, K.; Muñoz-Rojas, F.; Murta, R.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nanut, T.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neustroev, P.; Nicolini, J.; Nicotra, D.; Niel, E. M.; Nikitin, N.; Nogga, P.; Nolte, N. S.; Normand, C.; Novoa Fernandez, J.; Nowak, G.; Nunez, C.; Nur, H. N.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oeser, T.; Okamura, S.; Okhotnikov, A.; Oldeman, R.; Oliva, F.; Olocco, M.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; O’Neil, R. H.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Ozcelik, O.; Padeken, K. O.; Pagare, B.; Pais, P. R.; Pajero, T.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panshin, G.; Paolucci, L.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parkes, C.; Passalacqua, B.; Passaleva, G.; Passaro, D.; Pastore, A.; Patel, M.; Patoc, J.; Patrignani, C.; Pawley, C. J.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Pereima, D.; Pereiro Castro, A.; Perret, P.; Perro, A.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrucci, S.; Pfaller, J. P.; Pham, H.; Pica, L.; Piccini, M.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pietrzyk, G.; Pinci, D.; Pisani, F.; Pizzichemi, M.; Placinta, V.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poli Lener, M.; Poluektov, A.; Polukhina, N.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Ponce, S.; Popov, D.; Poslavskii, S.; Prasanth, K.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Qin, N.; Qu, S.; Quagliani, R.; Rabadan Trejo, R. I.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramírez García, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Rebollo De Miguel, M.; Redi, F.; Reich, J.; Reiss, F.; Ren, Z.; Resmi, P. K.; Ribatti, R.; Ricart, G. R.; Riccardi, D.; Ricciardi, S.; Richardson, K.; Richardson-Slipper, M.; Rinnert, K.; Robbe, P.; Robertson, G.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Fernandez, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, E.; Rogovskiy, A.; Rolf, D. L.; Roloff, P.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Lamas, M.; Romero Vidal, A.; Romolini, G.; Ronchetti, F.; Rotondo, M.; Roy, S. R.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Diaz, M.; Ruiz Fernandez, R. A.; Ruiz Vidal, J.; Ryzhikov, A.; Ryzka, J.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadek, R.; Sagidova, N.; Sahoo, D.; Sahoo, N.; Saitta, B.; Salomoni, M.; Sanchez Gras, C.; Sanderswood, I.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santoro, L.; Santovetti, E.; Saputi, A.; Saranin, D.; Sarpis, G.; Sarpis, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saur, M.; Savrina, D.; Sazak, H.; Scantlebury Smead, L. G.; Scarabotto, A.; Schael, S.; Scherl, S.; Schertz, A. M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, H.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schulte, N.; Schulte, S.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Schwering, G.; Sciascia, B.; Sciuccati, A.; Sellam, S.; Semennikov, A.; Senger, T.; Senghi Soares, M.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Sestini, L.; Seuthe, A.; Shang, Y.; Shangase, D. M.; Shapkin, M.; Sharma, R. S.; Shchemerov, I.; Shchutska, L.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shen, Z.; Sheng, S.; Shevchenko, V.; Shi, B.; Shields, E. B.; Shimizu, Y.; Shmanin, E.; Shorkin, R.; Shupperd, J. D.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Slater, M. W.; Smallwood, J. C.; Smith, E.; Smith, K.; Smith, M.; Snoch, A.; Soares Lavra, L.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Solomin, A.; Solovev, A.; Solovyev, I.; Song, R.; Song, Y.; Song, Y. S.; Souza De Almeida, F. L.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spadaro Norella, E.; Spedicato, E.; Speer, J. G.; Spiridenkov, E.; Spradlin, P.; Sriskaran, V.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stanislaus, S.; Stein, E. N.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevens, H.; Strekalina, D.; Su, Y.; Suljik, F.; Sun, J.; Sun, L.; Sun, Y.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swallow, P. N.; Swystun, F.; Szabelski, A.; Szumlak, T.; Szymanski, M.; Tan, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tat, M. D.; Terentev, A.; Terzuoli, F.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; Thompson, D. J. D.; Tilquin, H.; Tisserand, V.; T’Jampens, S.; Tobin, M.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonani, G.; Tong, X.; Torres Machado, D.; Toscano, L.; Tou, D. Y.; Trippl, C.; Tuci, G.; Tuning, N.; Uecker, L. H.; Ukleja, A.; Unverzagt, D. J.; Ursov, E.; Usachov, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valenti, G.; Valls Canudas, N.; Van Hecke, H.; van Herwijnen, E.; Van Hulse, C. B.; Van Laak, R.; van Veghel, M.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Venkateswaran, A.; Vesterinen, M.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vilella Figueras, E.; Villa, A.; Vincent, P.; Volle, F. C.; vom Bruch, D.; Vorobyev, V.; Voropaev, N.; Vos, K.; Vouters, G.; Vrahas, C.; Walsh, J.; Walton, E. J.; Wan, G.; Wang, C.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.; Wang, M.; Wang, N. W.; Wang, R.; Wang, X.; Wang, X. W.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ward, J. A.; Waterlaat, M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Wei, Y.; Westhenry, B. D. C.; White, D. J.; Whitehead, M.; Wiederhold, A. R.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M. K.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. R. J.; Williams, R.; Wilson, F. F.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Witola, L.; Wong, C. P.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wu, H.; Wu, J.; Wu, Y.; Wyllie, K.; Xian, S.; Xiang, Z.; Xie, Y.; Xu, A.; Xu, J.; Xu, L.; Xu, M.; Xu, Z.; Yang, D.; Yang, S.; Yang, X.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yeroshenko, V.; Yeung, H.; Yin, H.; Yu, C. Y.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Zaffaroni, E.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zdybal, M.; Zeng, M.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zharkova, A.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, X. Z.; Zheng, Y.; Zhou, T.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, Y.; Zhovkovska, V.; Zhu, L. Z.; Zhu, X.; Zhukov, V.; Zhuo, J.; Zou, Q.; Zuliani, D.; Zunica, G.
    A study of Bc+→χcπ+ decays is reported using proton-proton collision data, collected with the LHCb detector at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8, and 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9 fb−1. The decay Bc+→χc2π+ is observed for the first time, with a significance exceeding seven standard deviations. The relative branching fraction with respect to the Bc+→J/ψπ+ decay is measured to beBBc+→χc2π+BBc+→J/ψπ+=0.37±0.06±0.02±0.01, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the knowledge of the χc2→ J/ψγ branching fraction. No significant Bc+→χc1π+ signal is observed and an upper limit for the relative branching fraction for the Bc+→χc1π+ and Bc+→χc2π+ decays of BBc+→χc1π+BBc+→χc2π+=<0.49 is set at the 90% confidence level.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Transfer learning with graph neural networks for improved molecular property prediction in the multi-fidelity setting
    (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2024-02-26) Buterez, David; Janet, Jon Paul; Kiddle, Steven J.; Oglic, Dino; Lió, Pietro; Buterez, David [0000-0001-6558-0833]; Janet, Jon Paul [0000-0001-7825-4797]; Lió, Pietro [0000-0002-0540-5053]
    We investigate the potential of graph neural networks for transfer learning and improving molecular property prediction on sparse and expensive to acquire high-fidelity data by leveraging low-fidelity measurements as an inexpensive proxy for a targeted property of interest. This problem arises in discovery processes that rely on screening funnels for trading off the overall costs against throughput and accuracy. Typically, individual stages in these processes are loosely connected and each one generates data at different scale and fidelity. We consider this setup holistically and demonstrate empirically that existing transfer learning techniques for graph neural networks are generally unable to harness the information from multi-fidelity cascades. Here, we propose several effective transfer learning strategies and study them in transductive and inductive settings. Our analysis involves a collection of more than 28 million unique experimental protein-ligand interactions across 37 targets from drug discovery by high-throughput screening and 12 quantum properties from the dataset QMugs. The results indicate that transfer learning can improve the performance on sparse tasks by up to eight times while using an order of magnitude less high-fidelity training data. Moreover, the proposed methods consistently outperform existing transfer learning strategies for graph-structured data on drug discovery and quantum mechanics datasets.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Body mass index stratified meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of polycystic ovary syndrome in women of European ancestry
    (BioMed Central, 2024-02-26) Burns, Kharis; Mullin, Benjamin H.; Moolhuijsen, Loes M. E.; Laisk, Triin; Tyrmi, Jaakko S.; Cui, Jinrui; Actkins, Ky’Era V.; Louwers, Yvonne V.; Davis, Lea K.; Dudbridge, Frank; Azziz, Ricardo; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Laivuori, Hannele; Mägi, Reedik; Visser, Jenny A.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Wilson, Scott G.; Day, Felix R.; Stuckey, Bronwyn G. A.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex multifactorial disorder with a substantial genetic component. However, the clinical manifestations of PCOS are heterogeneous with notable differences between lean and obese women, implying a different pathophysiology manifesting in differential body mass index (BMI). We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from six well-characterised cohorts, using a case–control study design stratified by BMI, aiming to identify genetic variants associated with lean and overweight/obese PCOS subtypes. Results: The study comprised 254,588 women (5,937 cases and 248,651 controls) from individual studies performed in Australia, Estonia, Finland, the Netherlands and United States of America, and separated according to three BMI stratifications (lean, overweight and obese). Genome-wide association analyses were performed for each stratification within each cohort, with the data for each BMI group meta-analysed using METAL software. Almost half of the total study population (47%, n = 119,584) were of lean BMI (≤ 25 kg/m2). Two genome-wide significant loci were identified for lean PCOS, led by rs12000707 within DENND1A (P = 1.55 × 10–12) and rs2228260 within XBP1 (P = 3.68 × 10–8). One additional locus, LINC02905, was highlighted as significantly associated with lean PCOS through gene-based analyses (P = 1.76 × 10–6). There were no significant loci observed for the overweight or obese sub-strata when analysed separately, however, when these strata were combined, an association signal led by rs569675099 within DENND1A reached genome-wide significance (P = 3.22 × 10–9) and a gene-based association was identified with ERBB4 (P = 1.59 × 10–6). Nineteen of 28 signals identified in previous GWAS, were replicated with consistent allelic effect in the lean stratum. There were less replicated signals in the overweight and obese groups, and only 4 SNPs were replicated in each of the three BMI strata. Conclusions: Genetic variation at the XBP1, LINC02905 and ERBB4 loci were associated with PCOS within unique BMI strata, while DENND1A demonstrated associations across multiple strata, providing evidence of both distinct and shared genetic features between lean and overweight/obese PCOS-affected women. This study demonstrated that PCOS-affected women with contrasting body weight are not only phenotypically distinct but also show variation in genetic architecture; lean PCOS women typically display elevated gonadotrophin ratios, lower insulin resistance, higher androgen levels, including adrenal androgens, and more favourable lipid profiles. Overall, these findings add to the growing body of evidence supporting a genetic basis for PCOS as well as differences in genetic patterns relevant to PCOS BMI-subtype.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Delivering medical leadership training through the Healthcare Leadership Academy: a four year analysis
    (BioMed Central, 2024-02-25) Zarif, Azmaeen; Bandyopadhyay, Soham; Miller, George; Malawana, Johann
    Background: Formal leadership training is typically targeted at senior health professionals. The Healthcare Leadership Academy (HLA) was formed in 2016 to provide a leadership programme for students and early-career health professionals. This study analyses the effectiveness of the HLA scholarship programme as an intervention for improving interest in and preparing scholars for future leadership roles. Methods: Survey data was used to assess the effectiveness of the HLA Scholarship program in cultivating leadership development. Questions required either multiple-choice, free text, ranking or Likert scale (‘strongly agree’, ‘agree’, ‘neither agree nor disagree’, ‘disagree’, ‘strongly disagree) responses. Participants spanned six regions (London, Newcastle, Bristol, Belfast, Edinburgh, and Amsterdam) in four countries (England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and the Netherlands). Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted, and insights were drawn from the open-ended survey questions using a leadership framework. Results: Seventy participants who underwent the course between 2016 and 2020 completed the questionnaire. Nearly all (99%) found that the training provided on the programme had equipped them to be more effective leaders, with 86% of respondents stating that they were more likely to take on leadership roles. Nearly all (97.1%) found the course to be either of good or very good quality. Nineteen insights were identified from free text responses that fitted under one of the four themes of the leadership framework: “optimising”, “resolving uncertainty”, “enhancing adaptability”, and “promulgating a vision”. Conclusions: Healthcare leadership is a non-negotiable component of healthcare delivery in the 21st Century. As healthcare professionals, it is our duty to be effective leaders confident and competent in navigating the increasingly complex systems within which we operate for the benefit of ourselves, colleagues, and patients. By accounting for known shortcomings and developing ameliorative measures, the HLA Scholarship programme addresses unmet needs in a structured manner to support effective long-term healthcare leadership development.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Author Correction: Improved machine learning algorithm for predicting ground state properties
    (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2024-02-26) Lewis, Laura; Huang, Hsin-Yuan; Tran, Viet T.; Lehner, Sebastian; Kueng, Richard; Preskill, John; Huang, Hsin-Yuan [0000-0001-5317-2613]
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Improved machine learning algorithm for predicting ground state properties
    (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2024-01-30) Lewis, Laura; Huang, Hsin-Yuan; Tran, Viet T.; Lehner, Sebastian; Kueng, Richard; Preskill, John; Huang, Hsin-Yuan [0000-0001-5317-2613]
    Finding the ground state of a quantum many-body system is a fundamental problem in quantum physics. In this work, we give a classical machine learning (ML) algorithm for predicting ground state properties with an inductive bias encoding geometric locality. The proposed ML model can efficiently predict ground state properties of an n-qubit gapped local Hamiltonian after learning from only O(log(n)) data about other Hamiltonians in the same quantum phase of matter. This improves substantially upon previous results that require O(nc) data for a large constant c. Furthermore, the training and prediction time of the proposed ML model scale as O(nlogn) in the number of qubits n. Numerical experiments on physical systems with up to 45 qubits confirm the favorable scaling in predicting ground state properties using a small training dataset.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Cosmology and fundamental physics with the ELT-ANDES spectrograph
    (Springer Netherlands, 2024-02-26) Martins, C.J.A.P.; Cooke, R.; Liske, J.; Murphy, M.T.; Noterdaeme, P.; Schmidt, T.M.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Alves, C. S.; Balashev, S.; Cristiani, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Génova Santos, R.; Gonçalves, R. S.; González Hernández, J. I.; Maiolino, R.; Marconi, A.; Marques, C. M. J.; Melo e Sousa, M. A. F.; Nunes, N. J.; Origlia, L.; Péroux, C.; Vinzl, S.; Zanutta, A.; Martins, C.J.A.P. [0000-0002-4886-9261]; Cooke, R. [0000-0001-7653-5827]; Liske, J. [0000-0001-7542-2927]; Murphy, M.T. [0000-0002-7040-5498]; Noterdaeme, P. [0000-0002-5777-1629]; Schmidt, T.M. [0000-0002-4833-7273]
    State-of-the-art 19th century spectroscopy led to the discovery of quantum mechanics, and 20th century spectroscopy led to the confirmation of quantum electrodynamics. State-of-the-art 21st century astrophysical spectrographs, especially ANDES at ESO’s ELT, have another opportunity to play a key role in the search for, and characterization of, the new physics which is known to be out there, waiting to be discovered. We rely on detailed simulations and forecast techniques to discuss four important examples of this point: big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of the cosmic microwave background temperature, tests of the universality of physical laws, and a real-time model-independent mapping of the expansion history of the universe (also known as the redshift drift). The last two are among the flagship science drivers for the ELT. We also highlight what is required for the ESO community to be able to play a meaningful role in 2030s fundamental cosmology and show that, even if ANDES only provides null results, such ‘minimum guaranteed science’ will be in the form of constraints on key cosmological paradigms: these are independent from, and can be competitive with, those obtained from traditional cosmological probes.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Species-specific regulation of XIST by the JPX/FTX orthologs
    (Oxford University Press, 2023-02-02) Rosspopoff, Olga; Cazottes, Emmanuel; Huret, Christophe; Loda, Agnese; Collier, Amanda J; Casanova, Miguel; Rugg-Gunn, Peter J; Heard, Edith; Ouimette, Jean-François; Rougeulle, Claire; Rougeulle, Claire [0000-0003-3861-4940]
    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an essential process, yet it initiates with remarkable diversity in various mammalian species. XIST, the main trigger of XCI, is controlled in the mouse by an interplay of lncRNA genes (LRGs), some of which evolved concomitantly to XIST and have orthologues across all placental mammals. Here, we addressed the functional conservation of human orthologues of two such LRGs, FTX and JPX. By combining analysis of single-cell RNA-seq data from early human embryogenesis with various functional assays in matched human and mouse pluripotent stem- or differentiated post-XCI cells, we demonstrate major functional differences for these orthologues between species, independently of primary sequence conservation. While the function of FTX is not conserved in humans, JPX stands as a major regulator of XIST expression in both species. However, we show that different entities of JPX control the production of XIST at various steps depending on the species. Altogether, our study highlights the functional versatility of LRGs across evolution, and reveals that functional conservation of orthologous LRGs may involve diversified mechanisms of action. These findings represent a striking example of how the evolvability of LRGs can provide adaptative flexibility to constrained gene regulatory networks.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Pittite Triumph and Whig Failure in the Cambridge University Constituency, 1780–96
    (2024-02-26) Cowan, David; Cowan, David [0009-0009-7200-758X]
    Cambridge University has been featured in a wide range of studies of the long 18th century, but few have focused exclusively on the dynamics behind its politics. This is surprising since many of the Cambridge University electors were close to leading parliamentarians. The Cambridge University constituency was contested at each of the three successive general elections from 1780 onwards until 1796. Parliamentary contests often brought Cambridge University's political tensions into focus, which is why a detailed analysis of the poll books can demonstrate how different networks within the university behaved and could define the performance of candidates for the constituency. The relationships between the chancellors, vice‐chancellors, high stewards, university officers, college heads, fellows, senate members and members of parliament who collectively made up the leadership are fundamental to understanding the electorate of Cambridge University. These relationships, in terms of friendships, alliances and rivalries, also influenced political and patronage networks within the university. William Pitt the Younger's success in changing the political complexion of Cambridge University is part of the broader realignment in British politics during the final two decades of the 18th century. Under the pressure of these events, Whig unity would come to an end as new divisions between ministerialists and reformers emerged. The experience of Cambridge University can shed light on the national shifts as well as how electioneering was carried out in the university parliamentary constituencies.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Frequency and outcomes of gastrostomy insertion in a longitudinal cohort study of atypical parkinsonism
    (2024-02-26) Kobylecki, Christopher; Chelban, Viorica; Goh, Yee Yen; Michou, Emilia; Fumi, Riona; Theilmann Jensen, Marte; Mohammad, Rahema; Costantini, Alyssa; Vijiaratnam, Nirosen; Pavey, Samantha; Pavese, Nicola; Leigh, P. Nigel; Rowe, James B.; Hu, Michele T.; Church, Alistair; Morris, Huw R.; Houlden, Henry; Kobylecki, Christopher [0000-0002-7797-0756]; Chelban, Viorica [0000-0002-5817-6290]; Michou, Emilia [0000-0002-7245-0882]; Pavese, Nicola [0000-0002-6801-6194]
    Background: Multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) show a high prevalence and rapid progression of dysphagia, which is associated with reduced survival. Despite this, the evidence base for gastrostomy is poor, and the optimal frequency and outcomes of this intervention are not known. We aimed to characterise the prevalence and outcomes of gastrostomy in patients with these three atypical parkinsonian disorders. Method: We analysed data from the natural history and longitudinal cohorts of the PROSPECT‐M‐UK study with up to 60 months of follow‐up from baseline. Survival post‐gastrostomy was analysed using Kaplan–Meier survival curves. Results: In a total of 339 patients (mean age at symptom onset 63.3 years, mean symptom duration at baseline 4.6 years), dysphagia was present in >50% across all disease groups at baseline and showed rapid progression during follow‐up. Gastrostomy was recorded as recommended in 44 (13%) and performed in 21 (6.2%; MSA 7, PSP 11, CBS 3) of the total study population. Median survival post‐gastrostomy was 24 months compared with 12 months where gastrostomy was recommended but not done (p = 0.008). However, this was not significant when correcting for age and duration of symptoms at the time of procedure or recommendation. Conclusions: Gastrostomy was performed relatively infrequently in this cohort despite the high prevalence of dysphagia. Survival post‐gastrostomy was longer than previously reported, but further data on other outcomes and clinician and patient perspectives would help to guide use of this intervention in MSA, PSP and CBS.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Modeling carbon dioxide removal via sinking of particulate organic carbon from macroalgae cultivation
    (Frontiers Media S.A., 2024-02-12) Chen, Si; Strong-Wright, Jago; Taylor, John R.
    Macroalgae cultivation is receiving growing attention as a potential carbon dioxide removal (CDR) strategy. Macroalgae biomass harvesting and/or intentional sinking have been the main focus of research efforts. A significant amount of biomass is naturally lost through erosion and breakage of cultivated or naturally growing seaweed, but the contribution of the resulting particulates to carbon sequestration is relatively unexplored. Here, we use a fully coupled kelp-biogeochemistry model forced by idealized parameters in a closed system to estimate the potential of macroalgal-derived particulate organic carbon (POC) sinking as a CDR pathway. Our model indicates that at a kelp density of 1.1 fronds m−3, macroalgal POC sinking can export 7.4 times more carbon to the deep sea (depths > 500m) and remove 5.2 times more carbon from the atmosphere (equivalent to an additional 336.0 gC m−2 yr−1) compared to the natural biological pump without kelp in our idealized closed system. The results suggest that CDR associated with POC sinking should be explored as a possible benefit of seaweed farming and point to the need for further study on organic carbon partitioning and its bioavailability to quantify the effectiveness and impacts of macroalgal cultivation as a CDR strategy.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Valence and interactions in judicial voting
    (The Royal Society, 2024-02-26) Lee, Edward D.; Cantwell, George T.; Lee, Edward D. [0000-0003-2075-6342]
    The collective statistics of voting on judicial courts present hints about their inner workings. Many approaches for studying these statistics, however, assume that judges’ decisions are conditionally independent: a judge reaches a decision based on the case at hand and his or her personal views. In reality, judges interact. We develop a minimal model that accounts for judge bias, depending on the context of the case, and peer interaction. We apply the model to voting data from the US Supreme Court. We find strong evidence that interaction is an important factor across natural courts from 1946 to 2021. We also find that, after accounting for interaction, the recovered biases differ from highly cited ideological scores. Our method exemplifies how physics and complexity-inspired modelling can drive the development of theoretical models and improved measures for political voting. This article is part of the theme issue ‘A complexity science approach to law and governance’.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Risk factors for internalizing symptoms: The influence of empathy, theory of mind, and negative thinking processes.
    (Wiley, 2024-02-15) Konrad, Annika C; Förster, Katharina; Stretton, Jason; Dalgleish, Tim; Böckler-Raettig, Anne; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Singer, Tania; Kanske, Philipp; Konrad, Annika C [0000-0002-7263-9693]
    Internalizing symptoms such as elevated stress and sustained negative affect can be important warning signs for developing mental disorders. A recent theoretical framework suggests a complex interplay of empathy, theory of mind (ToM), and negative thinking processes as a crucial risk combination for internalizing symptoms. To disentangle these relationships, this study utilizes neural, behavioral, and self-report data to examine how the interplay between empathy, ToM, and negative thinking processes relates to stress and negative affect. We reanalyzed the baseline data of N = 302 healthy participants (57% female, Mage  = 40.52, SDage  = 9.30) who participated in a large-scale mental training study, the ReSource project. Empathy and ToM were assessed using a validated fMRI paradigm featuring naturalistic video stimuli and via self-report. Additional self-report scales were employed to measure internalizing symptoms (perceived stress, negative affect) and negative thinking processes (rumination and self-blame). Our results revealed linear associations of self-reported ToM and empathic distress with stress and negative affect. Also, both lower and higher, compared to average, activation in the anterior insula during empathic processing and in the middle temporal gyrus during ToM performance was significantly associated with internalizing symptoms. These associations were dependent on rumination and self-blame. Our findings indicate specific risk constellations for internalizing symptoms. Especially people with lower self-reported ToM and higher empathic distress may be at risk for more internalizing symptoms. Quadratic associations of empathy- and ToM-related brain activation with internalizing symptoms depended on negative thinking processes, suggesting differential effects of cognitive and affective functioning on internalizing symptoms. Using a multi-method approach, these findings advance current research by shedding light on which complex risk combinations of cognitive and affective functioning are relevant for internalizing symptoms.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Exploring the advances of single-cell RNA sequencing in thyroid cancer: a narrative review
    (Springer US, 2023-12-21) Tan, Joecelyn Kirani; Awuah, Wireko Andrew; Roy, Sakshi; Ferreira, Tomas; Ahluwalia, Arjun; Guggilapu, Saibaba; Javed, Mahnoor; Asyura, Muhammad Mikail Athif Zhafir; Adebusoye, Favour Tope; Ramamoorthy, Krishna; Paoletti, Emma; Abdul-Rahman, Toufik; Prykhodko, Olha; Ovechkin, Denys; Tan, Joecelyn Kirani [0009-0005-3648-6553]
    Thyroid cancer, a prevalent form of endocrine malignancy, has witnessed a substantial increase in occurrence in recent decades. To gain a comprehensive understanding of thyroid cancer at the single-cell level, this narrative review evaluates the applications of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) in thyroid cancer research. ScRNA-seq has revolutionised the identification and characterisation of distinct cell subpopulations, cell-to-cell communications, and receptor interactions, revealing unprecedented heterogeneity and shedding light on novel biomarkers for therapeutic discovery. These findings aid in the construction of predictive models on disease prognosis and therapeutic efficacy. Altogether, scRNA-seq has deepened our understanding of the tumour microenvironment immunologic insights, informing future studies in the development of effective personalised treatment for patients. Challenges and limitations of scRNA-seq, such as technical biases, financial barriers, and ethical concerns, are discussed. Advancements in computational methods, the advent of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL), and the importance of single-cell data sharing and collaborative efforts are highlighted. Future directions of scRNA-seq in thyroid cancer research include investigating intra-tumoral heterogeneity, integrating with other omics technologies, exploring the non-coding RNA landscape, and studying rare subtypes. Overall, scRNA-seq has transformed thyroid cancer research and holds immense potential for advancing personalised therapies and improving patient outcomes. Efforts to make this technology more accessible and cost-effective will be crucial to ensuring its widespread utilisation in healthcare.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Evaluating the impacts of a large-scale voluntary REDD+ project in Sierra Leone
    (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2024-01-04) Malan, Mandy; Carmenta, Rachel; Gsottbauer, Elisabeth; Hofman, Paul; Kontoleon, Andreas; Swinfield, Tom; Voors, Maarten; Carmenta, Rachel [0000-0001-8607-4147]; Hofman, Paul [0000-0002-4091-876X]; Kontoleon, Andreas [0000-0003-4769-898X]; Swinfield, Tom [0000-0001-9354-5090]; Voors, Maarten [0000-0001-5907-3253]
    Carbon offsets from the REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation) framework to protect forests are expected to see a 100-fold increase in market value by 2050. However, independent causal impact evaluations are scarce and only a few studies assess benefits to communities themselves, a core objective of REDD+. Following a pre-analysis plan, we use a before-after-control-intervention (BACI) framework to evaluate the impact of a large-scale voluntary REDD+ project in Sierra Leone—the Gola project. We use a panel of both satellite images and household surveys to provide causal evidence of the impact of the project on local deforestation rates and socioeconomic indicators over the first 5 yr of its implementation. We find that REDD+ slowed deforestation by 30% relative to control communities while not changing economic wellbeing and conservation attitudes. We find suggestive evidence that the programme increased the value of alternative income sources, by shifting labour away from forest-dependent farming activities. A cost-to-carbon calculation shows that REDD+ led to 340,000 tCO2 in avoided emissions per year, with an estimated cost of US$1.12 per averted tCO2. Our study contributes to developing an evidence base for voluntary REDD+ projects and offers a robust approach to carry out BACI assessments.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Clonal dynamics of haematopoiesis across the human lifespan.
    (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-06) Mitchell, Emily; Spencer Chapman, Michael; Williams, Nicholas; Dawson, Kevin J; Mende, Nicole; Calderbank, Emily F; Jung, Hyunchul; Mitchell, Thomas; Coorens, Tim HH; Spencer, David H; Machado, Heather; Lee-Six, Henry; Davies, Megan; Hayler, Daniel; Fabre, Margarete A; Mahbubani, Krishnaa; Abascal, Federico; Cagan, Alex; Vassiliou, George S; Baxter, Joanna; Martincorena, Inigo; Stratton, Michael R; Kent, David G; Chatterjee, Krishna; Parsy, Kourosh Saeb; Green, Anthony R; Nangalia, Jyoti; Laurenti, Elisa; Campbell, Peter J; Spencer Chapman, Michael [0000-0002-5320-8193]; Williams, Nicholas [0000-0003-3989-9167]; Mende, Nicole [0000-0002-5078-2333]; Calderbank, Emily F [0000-0002-9559-6593]; Coorens, Tim HH [0000-0002-5826-3554]; Lee-Six, Henry [0000-0003-4831-8088]; Mahbubani, Krishnaa [0000-0002-1327-2334]; Abascal, Federico [0000-0002-6201-1587]; Cagan, Alex [0000-0002-7857-4771]; Vassiliou, George S [0000-0003-4337-8022]; Martincorena, Inigo [0000-0003-1122-4416]; Stratton, Michael R [0000-0001-6035-153X]; Kent, David G [0000-0001-7871-8811]; Chatterjee, Krishna [0000-0002-2654-8854]; Parsy, Kourosh Saeb [0000-0002-0633-3696]; Nangalia, Jyoti [0000-0001-7122-4608]; Laurenti, Elisa [0000-0002-9917-9092]; Campbell, Peter J [0000-0002-3921-0510]
    Age-related change in human haematopoiesis causes reduced regenerative capacity1, cytopenias2, immune dysfunction3 and increased risk of blood cancer4-6, but the reason for such abrupt functional decline after 70 years of age remains unclear. Here we sequenced 3,579 genomes from single cell-derived colonies of haematopoietic cells across 10 human subjects from 0 to 81 years of age. Haematopoietic stem cells or multipotent progenitors (HSC/MPPs) accumulated a mean of 17 mutations per year after birth and lost 30 base pairs per year of telomere length. Haematopoiesis in adults less than 65 years of age was massively polyclonal, with high clonal diversity and a stable population of 20,000-200,000 HSC/MPPs contributing evenly to blood production. By contrast, haematopoiesis in individuals aged over 75 showed profoundly decreased clonal diversity. In each of the older subjects, 30-60% of haematopoiesis was accounted for by 12-18 independent clones, each contributing 1-34% of blood production. Most clones had begun their expansion before the subject was 40 years old, but only 22% had known driver mutations. Genome-wide selection analysis estimated that between 1 in 34 and 1 in 12 non-synonymous mutations were drivers, accruing at constant rates throughout life, affecting more genes than identified in blood cancers. Loss of the Y chromosome conferred selective benefits in males. Simulations of haematopoiesis, with constant stem cell population size and constant acquisition of driver mutations conferring moderate fitness benefits, entirely explained the abrupt change in clonal structure in the elderly. Rapidly decreasing clonal diversity is a universal feature of haematopoiesis in aged humans, underpinned by pervasive positive selection acting on many more genes than currently identified.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    Single-molecule RNA sizing enables quantitative analysis of alternative transcription termination
    (Nature Publishing Group UK, 2024-02-24) Patiño-Guillén, Gerardo; Pešović, Jovan; Panić, Marko; Savić-Pavićević, Dušanka; Bošković, Filip; Keyser, Ulrich Felix; Bošković, Filip [0000-0001-7663-2408]; Keyser, Ulrich Felix [0000-0003-3188-5414]
    Transcription, a critical process in molecular biology, has found many applications in RNA synthesis, including mRNA vaccines and RNA therapeutics. However, current RNA characterization technologies suffer from amplification and enzymatic biases that lead to loss of native information. Here, we introduce a strategy to quantitatively study both transcription and RNA polymerase behaviour by sizing RNA with RNA nanotechnology and nanopores. To begin, we utilize T7 RNA polymerase to transcribe linear DNA lacking termination sequences. Surprisingly, we discover alternative transcription termination in the origin of replication sequence. Next, we employ circular DNA without transcription terminators to perform rolling circle transcription. This allows us to gain valuable insights into the processivity and transcription behaviour of RNA polymerase at the single-molecule level. Our work demonstrates how RNA nanotechnology and nanopores may be used in tandem for the direct and quantitative analysis of RNA transcripts. This methodology provides a promising pathway for accurate RNA structural mapping by enabling the study of full-length RNA transcripts at the single-molecule level.
  • ItemPublished versionOpen Access
    There and Back Again: Building Systems That Integrate, Interface, and Interact with the Human Body
    (Wiley, 2024-02-24) Boys, Alexander J; Boys, Alexander J [0000-0002-6488-7005]
    AbstractSince Dr. Theodor Schwann posed the extension of Cell Theory to mammals in 1839, scientists have dreamt up ways to interface with and influence the cells. Recently, considerable ground in this area is gained, particularly in the scope of bioelectronics. New advances in this area have provided with a means to record electrical activity from cells, examining neural firing or epithelial barrier integrity, and stimulate cells through applied electrical fields. Many of these applications utilize invasive implantation systems to perform this interaction in close proximity to the cells in question. Traditionally, the body's immune system fights back against these systems through the foreign body response, limiting the efficacy of long‐term interactions. New technologies in tissue engineering, biomaterials science, and bioelectronics offer the potential to circumvent the foreign body response and create stable long‐term biological interfaces. Looking ahead, the next advancements in the biomedical sciences can truly integrate, interface, and interact with the human body.