Risk Stratification and Treatment in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma.
Smoldering multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous asymptomatic precursor to multiple myeloma. Since its identification in 1980, risk stratification models have been developed using two main stratification methods: clinical measurement-based and genetics-based. Clinical measurement models can be subdivided in three types: baseline measurements (performed at diagnosis), evolving measurements (performed over time during follow-up appointments), and imaging (for example, magnetic resonance imaging). Genetic approaches include gene expression profiling, DNA/RNA sequencing, and cytogenetics. It is important to accurately distinguish patients with indolent disease from those with aggressive disease, as clinical trials have shown that patients designated as "high-risk of progression" have improved outcomes when treated early. The risk stratification models, and clinical trials are discussed in this review.
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