Subcellular Transcriptomics and Proteomics: A Comparative Methods Review.
The internal environment of cells is molecularly crowded, which requires spatial organization via subcellular compartmentalization. These compartments harbor specific conditions for molecules to perform their biological functions, such as coordination of the cell cycle, cell survival, and growth. This compartmentalization is also not static, with molecules trafficking between these subcellular neighborhoods to carry out their functions. For example, some biomolecules are multifunctional, requiring an environment with differing conditions or interacting partners, and others traffic to export such molecules. Aberrant localization of proteins or RNA species has been linked to many pathological conditions, such as neurological, cancer, and pulmonary diseases. Differential expression studies in transcriptomics and proteomics are relatively common, but the majority have overlooked the importance of subcellular information. In addition, subcellular transcriptomics and proteomics data do not always colocate because of the biochemical processes that occur during and after translation, highlighting the complementary nature of these fields. In this review, we discuss and directly compare the current methods in spatial proteomics and transcriptomics, which include sequencing- and imaging-based strategies, to give the reader an overview of the current tools available. We also discuss current limitations of these strategies as well as future developments in the field of spatial -omics.
Online Publication Date
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/R505304/1)
Wellcome Trust (110071/Z/15/Z)
European Commission Horizon 2020 (H2020) Research Infrastructures (RI) (823839)