Maternal Antiviral Immunoglobulin Accumulates in Neural Tissue of Neonates To Prevent HSV Neurological Disease.
Patel, Chaya D
Backes, Iara M
Posner, David A
Pachner, Andrew R
Nguyen, Lananh N
Leib, David A
American Society for Microbiology
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Jiang, Y., Patel, C. D., Manivanh, R., North, B., Backes, I. M., Posner, D. A., Gilli, F., et al. (2017). Maternal Antiviral Immunoglobulin Accumulates in Neural Tissue of Neonates To Prevent HSV Neurological Disease.. mBio, 8 (4) https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00678-17
While antibody responses to neurovirulent pathogens are critical for clearance, the extent to which antibodies access the nervous system to ameliorate infection is poorly understood. In this study on herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), we demonstrate that HSV-specific antibodies are present during HSV-1 latency in the nervous systems of both mice and humans. We show that antibody-secreting cells entered the trigeminal ganglion (TG), a key site of HSV infection, and persisted long after the establishment of latent infection. We also demonstrate the ability of passively administered IgG to enter the TG independently of infection, showing that the naive TG is accessible to antibodies. The translational implication of this finding is that human fetal neural tissue could contain HSV-specific maternally derived antibodies. Exploring this possibility, we observed HSV-specific IgG in HSV DNA-negative human fetal TG, suggesting passive transfer of maternal immunity into the prenatal nervous system. To further investigate the role of maternal antibodies in the neonatal nervous system, we established a murine model to demonstrate that maternal IgG can access and persist in neonatal TG. This maternal antibody not only prevented disseminated infection but also completely protected the neonate from neurological disease and death following HSV challenge. Maternal antibodies therefore have a potent protective role in the neonatal nervous system against HSV infection. These findings strongly support the concept that prevention of prenatal and neonatal neurotropic infections can be achieved through maternal immunization.IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 is a common infection of the nervous system that causes devastating neonatal disease. Using mouse and human tissue, we discovered that antiviral antibodies accumulate in neural tissue after HSV-1 infection in adults. Similarly, these antibodies pass to the offspring during pregnancy. We found that antiviral maternal antibodies can readily access neural tissue of the fetus and neonate. These maternal antibodies then protect neonatal mice against HSV-1 neurological infection and death. These results underscore the previously unappreciated role of maternal antibodies in protecting fetal and newborn nervous systems against infection. These data suggest that maternal immunization would be efficacious at preventing fetal/neonatal neurological infections.
External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00678-17
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/335846
Attribution 4.0 International
Licence URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/