The promise of amplification assays for accurate early detection of α-synucleinopathies: A review.
O'Brien, John T
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Kurapova, R., Chouliaras, L., & O'Brien, J. T. (2022). The promise of amplification assays for accurate early detection of α-synucleinopathies: A review.. Exp Gerontol, (111842), 111842-111842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2022.111842
Lewy body dementia encompasses the common neurodegenerative disorders Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Lewy Body disease (LBD) is characterized by abnormal aggregates of α-synuclein (α-syn) in the brain which form Lewy bodies. LBD is commonly misdiagnosed/underdiagnosed, especially in early stages. There remains a great need for reliable biomarkers to assist with LBD diagnosis. Amplification techniques such as real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) and protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) represent an important advance for biomarker detection. Amplification assays detect the ability of pathogenic protein to induce conformational change in normal protein; α-syn has been shown to propagate in a prion-like manner, making it a candidate for such analysis. In this review, we describe the diagnostic potential of amplification techniques for differentiating α-synucleinopathies from other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal syndrome (CBS), and atypical parkinsonism, as well as α-synucleinopathies from each other. Recent studies report accurate detection of α-syn seeding activity in human tissues such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), submandibular gland (SMG), and posterior cervical skin. Adaptation to clinical settings may present challenges. However, the high accuracy of recent results, combined with the success of amplification assay diagnostics in clinical practice for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, suggest high promise for eventual clinical application.
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External DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2022.111842
This record's URL: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/337682
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Licence URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/