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dc.contributor.authorFielding, Ceri Alan
dc.contributor.authorSabberwal, Pragati
dc.contributor.authorWilliamson, James C
dc.contributor.authorGreenwood, Edward JD
dc.contributor.authorCrozier, Thomas WM
dc.contributor.authorZelek, Wioleta
dc.contributor.authorSeow, Jeffrey
dc.contributor.authorGraham, Carl
dc.contributor.authorHuettner, Isabella
dc.contributor.authorEdgeworth, Jonathan D
dc.contributor.authorPrice, David A
dc.contributor.authorMorgan, Paul B
dc.contributor.authorLadell, Kristin
dc.contributor.authorEberl, Matthias
dc.contributor.authorHumphreys, Ian R
dc.contributor.authorMerrick, Blair
dc.contributor.authorDoores, Katie
dc.contributor.authorWilson, Sam J
dc.contributor.authorLehner, Paul J
dc.contributor.authorWang, Eddie CY
dc.contributor.authorStanton, Richard J
dc.date.accessioned2022-06-29T19:50:11Z
dc.date.available2022-06-29T19:50:11Z
dc.date.issued2022-05-19
dc.date.submitted2021-10-06
dc.identifier.issn2050-084X
dc.identifier.other74489
dc.identifier.urihttps://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/338601
dc.descriptionFunder: Ser Cymru
dc.description.abstractThe outcome of infection is dependent on the ability of viruses to manipulate the infected cell to evade immunity, and the ability of the immune response to overcome this evasion. Understanding this process is key to understanding pathogenesis, genetic risk factors, and both natural and vaccine-induced immunity. SARS-CoV-2 antagonises the innate interferon response, but whether it manipulates innate cellular immunity is unclear. An unbiased proteomic analysis determined how cell surface protein expression is altered on SARS-CoV-2-infected lung epithelial cells, showing downregulation of activating NK ligands B7-H6, MICA, ULBP2, and Nectin1, with minimal effects on MHC-I. This occurred at the level of protein synthesis, could be mediated by Nsp1 and Nsp14, and correlated with a reduction in NK cell activation. This identifies a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 host-shutoff antagonises innate immunity. Later in the disease process, strong antibody-dependent NK cell activation (ADNKA) developed. These responses were sustained for at least 6 months in most patients, and led to high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Depletion of spike-specific antibodies confirmed their dominant role in neutralisation, but these antibodies played only a minor role in ADNKA compared to antibodies to other proteins, including ORF3a, Membrane, and Nucleocapsid. In contrast, ADNKA induced following vaccination was focussed solely on spike, was weaker than ADNKA following natural infection, and was not boosted by the second dose. These insights have important implications for understanding disease progression, vaccine efficacy, and vaccine design.
dc.languageen
dc.publishereLife Sciences Publications, Ltd
dc.subjectResearch Article
dc.subjectImmunology and Inflammation
dc.subjectMicrobiology and Infectious Disease
dc.subjectSARS-CoV2
dc.subjectNK cells
dc.subjectinnate immunity
dc.subjectADCC
dc.subjectADNKA
dc.subjectViruses
dc.titleSARS-CoV-2 host-shutoff impacts innate NK cell functions, but antibody-dependent NK activity is strongly activated through non-spike antibodies.
dc.typeArticle
dc.date.updated2022-06-29T19:50:10Z
prism.publicationNameElife
prism.volume11
dc.identifier.doi10.17863/CAM.86014
dcterms.dateAccepted2022-05-17
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.7554/eLife.74489
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
datacite.contributor.supervisoreditor: Jonjic, Stipan
datacite.contributor.supervisorsenior_editor: Diamond, Betty
dc.contributor.orcidFielding, Ceri Alan [0000-0002-5817-3153]
dc.contributor.orcidGreenwood, Edward JD [0000-0002-5224-0263]
dc.contributor.orcidPrice, David A [0000-0001-9416-2737]
dc.contributor.orcidEberl, Matthias [0000-0002-9390-5348]
dc.contributor.orcidWilson, Sam J [0000-0002-6065-0895]
dc.contributor.orcidLehner, Paul J [0000-0001-9383-1054]
dc.contributor.orcidWang, Eddie CY [0000-0002-2243-4964]
dc.contributor.orcidStanton, Richard J [0000-0002-6799-1182]
dc.identifier.eissn2050-084X
pubs.funder-project-idWellcome Trust (210688/Z/18/Z)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (MR/V011561/1)
pubs.funder-project-idMRC (via University of Birmingham) (MR/V028448/1)
cam.issuedOnline2022-05-19


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