The neurobiology of addiction: the perspective from magnetic resonance imaging present and future.


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Authors
Nestor, Liam J 
Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Addiction is associated with severe economic and social consequences and personal tragedies, the scientific exploration of which draws upon investigations at the molecular, cellular and systems levels with a wide variety of technologies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been key to mapping effects observed at the microscopic and mesoscopic scales. The range of measurements from this apparatus has opened new avenues linking neurobiology to behaviour. This review considers the role of MRI in addiction research, and what future technological improvements might offer. METHODS: A hermeneutic strategy supplemented by an expansive, systematic search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases, covering from database inception to October 2015, with a conjunction of search terms relevant to addiction and MRI. Formal meta-analyses were prioritized. RESULTS: Results from methods that probe brain structure and function suggest frontostriatal circuitry disturbances within specific cognitive domains, some of which predict drug relapse and treatment response. New methods of processing imaging data are opening opportunities for understanding the role of cerebral vasculature, a global view of brain communication and the complex topology of the cortical surface and drug action. Future technological advances include increases in MRI field strength, with concomitant improvements in image quality. CONCLUSIONS: The magnetic resonance imaging literature provides a limited but convergent picture of the neurobiology of addiction as global changes to brain structure and functional disturbances to frontostriatal circuitry, accompanied by changes in anterior white matter.

Description
Keywords
Addiction, arterial spin labelling, blood oxygenation level dependent, brain structure and function, diffussion imaging, functional imaging, magentisation transfer, magnetic resonance imaging, neuroimaging, voxel based morphometry, Behavior, Addictive, Brain, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Neuroimaging
Journal Title
Addiction
Conference Name
Journal ISSN
0965-2140
1360-0443
Volume Title
112
Publisher
Wiley
Sponsorship
Medical Research Council (G1000183)
Wellcome Trust (093875/Z/10/Z)
Medical Research Council (G0001354)
The authors receive support from the Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, jointly funded by the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust, and the National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre.