Intrinsic and Extrinsic Ferromagnetism in Co-Doped Indium Tin Oxide Revealed Using X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism

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Hakimi, AMHR 
Schoofs, F 
Blamire, MG 
Langridge, S 
Dhesi, SS 

The effects of high-temperature annealing on ferromagnetic Co-doped Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetometry, and X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD). Following annealing, the magnetometry results indicate the formation of Co clusters with a significant increase in the saturation magnetization of the thin films arising from defects introduced during cluster formation. However, sum rule analysis of the element-specific XMCD results shows that the magnetic moment at the Co sites is reduced after annealing. The effects of annealing demonstrate that the ferromagnetism observed in the as-deposited Co-doped ITO films arises from intrinsic defects and cannot be related to the segregation of metallic Co clusters.

51 Physical Sciences, 5104 Condensed Matter Physics
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Advances in Condensed Matter Physics
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This work was funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. The authors would like to thank Richard Mott for his support during the experiments at Diamond Light Source and the Science and Technology Facilities Council for access to the SQUID instrument.